If you have been lazy since autumn and have not whitewashed trunks of fruit-trees up to the first branches according to our advice, having peeled off the old bark, have not protected the bases of trunks against rodents, even with fir lapnik, then a very unpleasant surprise can wait for you at your garden in spring. In this article, we will consider the possible consequences of winter for the garden: sunburns, cracks, frostbites, hollows and gnaws on trees. What to do with them, how to treat your favorite trees, we will now try to tell you.
Sunburns on trees
First, let us begin with causes, which depend on us indirectly, well, yes, not whitewashed the trunk and the base of the skeletal limbs, but the tree we have not spoiled. Everything usually begins, no not in winter, but in spring, when April like a mischievous little boy back and forth begins to let the burning sunlight bunnies. But during this period, feeling the warmth, the trees begin to feed, their sap movement is activated and firstly strange such, hardly impressed spots on the bark appear, just where the whitewash should be, especially it concerns the trees planted last year and the season before last.
And then these places on the contrary begin to swell and bark as if by magic suddenly turns along the spot, uncovering the wood, so here we are. And then what - various absolutely inedible mushrooms penetrate into the open gate, and if it is a stone crop, then the most abundant gumming is observed. These are the most real sunburns, formed in places of boles and skeletal boughs not whitewashed since autumn.
How to treat sunburns? You will have to take the tools in your hands, for example the familiar iron scraper and very carefully, trying not to damage the healthy tissue, remove the dying and dead bark by actually cutting it off.
It is important! The tool in this operation must be as sharp as a razor, otherwise you can make more scoring. The best variant for the beginner is a construction knife with breakaway segments.
The sunburn should be cleaned till the clean and healthy wood (by the way this procedure is absolutely painless for the tree), then wipe what you got with clean rag, possibly soaked in weak solution of manganese water and just in case treat the wound with 3% Bordovskoy liquid. Then leave the wound for two or three hours in complete rest, allowing the treatment to dry out, but it is better not to leave it in the open sun, better to cover it with usual newspaper, the moisture evaporates well through it, especially when the sun gets hot in the daytime.
When the wound dries it can be smeared with any, in fact, tightening composition, well, the easiest is a garden variety, but if you love your tree and want his speedy recovery, the composition can make more serious.
For this you need to take grams 100 beeswax, 20 grams of gasoline for lighters (not the crap from the car tank) and ordinary sulfur to the powder crushed in a mortar, also 100 g. Our wax in full should be melted in a water bath until liquid, take off the fire and pour 20 grams of gasoline there (quite enough), the result will be a mixture resembling Vaseline. Then, in this petroleum jelly, you need to add our ground sulfur, thoroughly stirring with a toothpick or stick, and put it all into any jar, which can be closed and from which you can conveniently take this composition.
One minus, this composition hardens longer than garden varnish, by my estimation about 15 minutes, but in the same year an even layer of new and living tissue is formed and to repeat this two or three times, as in the case of garden varnish, is not necessary at all.
Frost borers usually take a long time to heal, it may take several years from detection to complete cure. Frostbites are cracks of varying length and depth. To begin with the same office knife or scraper the wound should be well cleaned of dead tissue and 3-4% copper sulfate should be wiped off the surface. Only then the wound can be covered with a mixture of ordinary clay and cowpea in equal proportions or ordinary garden varnish, which is of course less reliable.
If the frost bite is more than 15 cm in length and several centimeters in depth, then you must act differently - here you should take the thickest wire and tighten the trunk, putting spacers of wood under it in advance. Alas, such processes should be repeated every spring until a well tightened rumen is formed.
In the immediate vicinity of frost boles, especially in seed crops, new shoots are often formed, having their own leaf plates. These shoots should be certainly saved, in order to enhance nutrition flow into the wound area, but to prevent shoots from growing in height, their tips should be pruned by about one third. As soon as the wounds will heal, these shoots should preferably be cut out on a ring, although if they do not interfere, you can leave them.
If a large frost bite is noticed on an apple tree, you can try to restore it in spring by grafting a bridge, connecting the edges with the previous year's growth, but this is more of a prank and it does not even smell reliable.
Hollows on trees
The hollow itself does not bear any particular harm, it is the garbage clogged there, bacteria, putrefactive microflora and other negative substances that, rotting, eventually lead to the increase and deepening of the hole and can even cause the death of the tree.
So we come to the conclusion, that hollows should be treated and obligatory, for that we prepare composition (something like fillings for teeth), but before that we scrape everything out of hollows with sharp knife, wiping it almost to shine, that not a single particle left in it and obligatory treat with 5% Bordovskoy liquid after all those works.
Furthermore we prepare the most real seal, even our grandfathers and grandmothers made excellent seals, consisting of cement of grade not less than 400, ordinary olive oil, as well as a solution of potassium soap and ground sulfur. For five parts of cement you need a part of olive oil, half of potassium soap, and half of ground sulfur. From all this by means of thick and rapid stirring we make the real mortar to consistency of granny's sour cream and pour this mortar inside, pushing it by hands dressed in rubber gloves. The next day if suddenly there was a dent we add the mortar, but usually it on the contrary we have to scrape off with file, achieving an even layer with the surface of the tree. Usually for 8-10 years such filling exactly enough, but then it, alas, falls out, because the tree grows and have to repeat everything again, but it depends on what place it stands, and it may not fall out ever again.
Treatment of gnawing
Raptors, often five minutes to set a grid or scatter poison from the gardener did not have, and here gnawing on the trunk, well, if not around, but also nothing especially something and good, and most importantly the lower the worse, if gnawing below the place grafting, then all hell, but not do the same funny grafting bridge, well all this nonsense right the word? !
But since the patient insists, let's describe, although the meaning of it at least a little, but there is. The meaning of the following grafting bridge revives, we can say the dead tree, and from him in summer or spring, you can cut cuttings for grafting (spring) or inoculation (fall) and plant normal seedlings, well, and this tree, alas, uproot.
Here we go, all we need is a copulatory knife and the tree itself, ah yes, two strips of polyethylene film a centimeter wide and ten centimeters long, or, if they will not be helpful, then a garden variety and a roll of food film. Film strips can be cut from any strong package, the main thing is that the color should be white or milky in extreme case, i.e. the film should not warm under the sun rays.
Please also read this.
In early spring, usually it is May, as soon as the sap starts to move all edges damaged by mice or hares carefully clean up to healthy tissue, that the lesion focus can be seen. All last year shoots, in this case, it is better to remove from the tree, leaving only a couple of them, some of them should be cut into cuttings of length of eight centimeters or more, in general, they must be longer than the area of bark damaged by mice or hares, then on each shoot make two wedges, from one and other part, as for usual copulatory.
Further, these wedges, carefully not to break, insert into the bark below and above the place damaged by mice or hares, preferably with the cut side facing the trunk. That is, in fact, all. It remains to wrap the bottom and top of the film, and if this is impossible because of the great thickness of the trunk, then simply smear garden varnish including places gnawing too.
What about the number of cuttings needed for grafting bridge, it all depends on the thickness of the trunk, they can be two, five, seven, even ten, the more chances that the apple tree will survive, the better. Well, for example the diameter gnawed trunk 4-6 cm, then three cuttings will be enough, but if the diameter over 12 inches it already needs cuttings seven or eight.
Ideally, after covering with garden varnish all this very carefully to avoid displacement grafting wrap plastic wrap ten days, no more, then necessarily remove it. In fact, five years will pass and the tree will again begin to actively develop, but if you want to get seedlings of this variety, then cut off the same shoots and graft on normal dwarf or semi-dwarf modern rootstock, and this tree just cut down or leave as a reminder of what will happen if you rush, not doing something important.
But this is not all, it turns out you can save the tree gnawed by mice and hares and in other ways. One of them is more simple and the other more complicated. Let's start with a simple - near gnawed apple plant an ordinary scion, better dwarf, retreating centimeters on 10-15, very sharpen her crown with a knife and drive it under the bark of the nursling exactly above the damaged place, so will go feeding and the tree should come to life. But in this case 70% of the shoots should be removed, otherwise the tree will die, it simply will not have enough nutrients.
Well, the most interesting option is grafting the bark, I have never tried, but they say that the effect is there. If any of you try and you succeed, strictly be sure to write about it in the comments.
First you need to make a kind of patch, for which you need to take a branch (thicker) of the same tree and with the help of okulirovochnogo knife remove from it completely all bark (first cut along, and then split the bark by bending it in different directions), so to fit to the size of the damaged by mice or rats area.
After that, the spot itself should be cleaned of irregularities for grafting and finally the new bark should be applied in exact accordance with the direction of bark growth on the stump. It remains to tie the place of the so called coagulation as tightly as possible with a polyethylene tape, taking the width corresponding to the size, making sure to capture the healthy part of the stem bark both on the top and on the bottom and to hold it tightly by at least five centimeters.
After such, I would say, rather complicated operation the tree should be provided with intensive watering and double portion of nutrition.
Treatment of blotting
The root neck of stone fruit crops is a vulnerable place and if even to deepen it when planting, then in winters rich with snow and cold springs, which don't allow the moisture to evaporate quickly, this important place can become waterlogged. Especially often young stone fruit trees suffer and if they are planted in a low place.
Sometimes as a scratch on the hand, it heals by itself, and sometimes the focus of podzodeniya is large, quite noticeable. The first sign of a bad tree is an abundance of rootstock, and if this rootstock of rootstock it is very bad, it looks like the tree decided to impose on itself and grow a wild instead of a cultivated variety.
Try grafting like a bridge, do not remove this shoot, pick out the thickest (pieces of eight), sharpen them with a pencil lead as a teacher soaks pencil lead, and stick in the spring or summer (July) under the bark above the root neck and fix with something, even a simple tape, as long as it is tight. It is quite possible that the tree can be saved, but it's better to move it in the future to another horseshoe, re-cultivating or re-copulating.
Well, it happens, but how to understand? For starters, if the tree is very much stunted or does not grow at all, just dig the soil and make an incision with a knife on the bark and root wood, if it is bad and all black it is clear that the roots died.
What to do with frozen trees? It is not worth throwing away, try to short-cut them closer to the beginning of May, leaving 30% of their wood, but only after making sure that the tree does not show signs of life and do not touch those shoots which at least little by little, but come to life. Be sure to caulk all cuts with garden varnish, or, better, with acrylic garden paint.
Mulch the root zone of such trees and shrubs with a couple of centimeters of mulch, it will enhance the reproduction of the earthworm and save moisture from rapid evaporation. Do not forget to loosen and weed the soil near such trees. The tree should be watered very carefully, only as the soil dries up, remember that it does not have roots and there is nothing to absorb moisture with.
Uncommon phenomenon especially after severe winters and if you relied on chance and did nothing with thermophilic plant which could be done in autumn. Firstly wait for bud blossoming on the shoots and those which have not blossomed ruthlessly cut them, damaging the cuts with acrylic paint.
Further usual care, twice the amount of fertilizers, the careful plucking of all flowers if it is a fruit plant, and approximately in October, and possible in November mandatory watering which can soak the soil to a depth of 35 cm.
It is advisable even under the crown, in pre-whipped soil to make 3-4 kg of well-digested manure, diluted 1 to 10.