Eggplants In The Greenhouse - Growing Rules And Best Varieties

Eggplants, tall upright plants with broad heart-shaped leaves of dark green color and large bright fruits, create a special mood in the garden. And in the kitchen they are a popular product for a wide variety of dishes: eggplants are fried, stewed and canned. Of course, it is not an easy task to grow a decent crop in the middle zone and to the north. But with the observance of agrotechnical rules of cultivation it is quite accessible even to the beginner gardener. Especially if you grow eggplants in the greenhouse. About the agrotechnics of greenhouse eggplants we will tell in the article.

Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
Aggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and the best varieties

Preparing the greenhouse for growing eggplant in the fall

It will be just fine (though not necessary) if you prepare the greenhouse beds for growing eggplant since the fall. To do this you need:

  • remove from seedbeds all post-harvest residues and take out beyond the greenhouse (burn, dig, put to rot),
  • abundant watering to provoke the emergence of weeds.

And then, on the state of the greenhouse soil, you can do differently:

if the soil is sufficiently fertile, on thread weeds sprouts to disinfect the soil, such as a solution of copper vitriol, dig over the bayonet shovel and leave until spring.

If the soil is poor, then first bring the necessary organic and mineral fertilizers: 1 sq. m area by 0.5 buckets of any organic (humus, biohumus), sprinkle (if necessary) soil dolomite flour (50 g / sq. m), add mineral fertilizers (60 g / sq. m nitrofoska is convenient). Then treat the soil to disinfect it with a solution of copper sulfate (3-4% solution is prepared in hot water). After a few days, the soil is re-cultivated to the bayonet of the spade and left until spring.

Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
Beautifully, if you prepare greenhouse beds for growing eggplant in the fall

Spring preparation of soil in the greenhouse for planting eggplant

If fall fertilizers do not make and do not prepare the soil for planting eggplant, the spring 20-25 days before planting seedlings in the ground make humus and fertilizers, calculated per 1 sq. m of area: 4-5 kg of organic matter, 50-60 g nitrophoska, magnesium sulfate 15-20 g (can be replaced with dolomite flour, 50 g).

Fertilizer is applied on a flat surface and the soil is recultivated to a depth of 20 cm. Then the soil is watered. Prepared area covered with film and transplanted seedlings in 3 weeks.

Attention! Spring preparation of soil in the greenhouse for planting seedlings begin when the shoots of eggplant seedlings appears first true leaf.

How to grow eggplant seedlings at home, see article Growing eggplant seedlings.

Transplanting eggplant seedlings in the greenhouse

The eggplant has very delicate roots. They are easily damaged during transplanting, which greatly prolongs the rooting period of the plants. The roots are least damaged when growing seedlings in seedling cassettes. If possible, it is more practical to plant seedlings grown in peat-mulch or peat pots without removing the plants.

Some gardeners advise to carefully cut along the sides of the pot. You can remove the bottom, so the root will grow freely deep and not bend while the bottom of the peat pot rots in the soil.

The eggplant is a heat-loving plant whose root system does not tolerate low temperatures. So before planting the plants the soil in the greenhouse should warm up to +15 ... +16°C, and the air to +18 ... +19°C, not lower.

Planning is best done in the morning or in cloudy weather. If conditions are different, it is necessary to shade planted plants, especially in the first 3-4 days after planting.

The soil before planting (for 2-3 days) should be leveled, watered to a moist (not wet) state. Watering is necessary, as the roots of eggplant are very delicate and dry soil can damage them.

Branches of eggplant, even low-growing, quite voluminous, sprawling, so planting is carried out in one row (with a small area allocated to culture), leaving a distance of 40-45 cm between bushes. If the area allows, you can densify planting by placing bushes in 2 rows in staggered order with a distance of 50-60 cm between the rows and 35-40-45 cm in a row (depending on the type of bush).

Selecting a planting scheme, prepare a planting hole of 12-18 cm deep. A handful of wood ash is introduced into the hole, and it is mixed with the soil. If the soil is not fertilized, you can add fertilizer to the hole before planting. Pour up to 1.0-1.5 liters of warm water (better - a light solution of manganese) into the hole.

The seedlings are planted together with the soil clod. Bare roots will definitely be damaged and it will take 10-15 days to take rooting of such plants, which will subsequently affect the timing of the early harvest. The plant in the hole is gently kneaded (without pressure), slightly watered again from the top. Planting mulch a shallow dry humus, peat, sawdust 2-3 years of age or other mulching material.

Attention! On the planting shows the appearance of a new leaf on the planting bush.

Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
planting eggplant planting with root ball. The best way to grow eggplants in greenhouses is to grow them separately from other cultures or to arrange them so that it is possible to create necessary temperature conditions, provide sufficient moisture in the soil and air, and additional light on cloudy days.

Air temperature and humidity regime

Average daily air temperature in the range +24 ... +28°C is optimum for eggplants. Varieties tolerant to temperature changes grow well and bear fruit at the temperature of +18...+24°C. Higher temperature causes shattering of flowers and reduced ability to set, and lower temperatures (especially lowering to +13 ... +15°C) stop plant growth. Reduce temperature by airing or watering paths with cold water, shading the sunny side.

Optimal air humidity varies within 60-70%. In the period of fruiting it is advisable to reduce the humidity to 60% to protect overgrown bushes from fungal diseases, which need high humidity.

Watering

Remember! Plants are watered only under the root to keep the leaves dry.

The plants need to adapt to new conditions, so the first watering shall not be earlier than 4-5 days.

Watering only warm (+25 ° C) water, otherwise the beginning of flowering is delayed to 10 days.

Lack of water (even short-term) causes drop of ovaries and stopping the growth of plants. Soil moisture, especially during fruiting, must be maintained at 75-80%. During fruiting, watering is carried out every 3-4 days.

Watering is carried out in the morning, then necessarily mulch the soil and ventilate the room, so that no greenhouse fog with high humidity and dripping is formed. Airing should be without draughts. The rate of watering depends on the condition of the soil. Water must soak the top (20-25 cm) layer of soil.

The next watering is assigned when the soil dries out in the top 3-5 cm layer (phalanx of the index finger) or once a week (before the beginning of fruiting). At high temperatures and bright sunny days outside the greenhouse, the frequency of indoor watering is increased.

Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
The eggplants are watered only under the root to keep the leaves dry.

Fertilizers

The formation of fruits of eggplants uses a lot of nutrients, so fertilizing is mandatory, and spend them, depending on soil fertility, 3-5 times a season.

Usually fertilizers "time" to post-irrigation period (a day after watering). The first feeding is carried out in 2 weeks, when the root system can fully supply the plants with the necessary nutrients. It is better to carry out a water-soluble complete fertilizer - "Solvent", "Kemira" at a dose of 30-40 g/10 l of water.

The second feeding (sprouting plants) can be prepared an extract from organic fertilizers. Per bucket of water 2-3 kg of cow manure or poultry manure, infuse 3-4 days. Dilute the mother liquor in 10-15 liters of water and pour 1.0-1.5 liters under each bush. You can add a handful of wood ash under the bush (it has a lot of trace elements).

The next feeding (beginning of flowering) plants need nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer. You can prepare a mixture of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate in a ratio of 2:1 and apply under the bush on a teaspoon on top or 45-50 grams of the mixture per square meter. To not bother with the preparation of the mixture, you can use diammophos or nitrophos for feeding.

In the same period to improve flowering you can spend foliar feeding with boric acid at the rate of 1 g of acid per 5 liters of hot water.

From the beginning of fruiting the plants need phosphorus-potassium feeding (mixture of potassium nitrate and superphosphate). The mixture can be replaced with nitrophoska fertilizer, the rate of 45-50 g per square meter. If prolonged fruiting, fertilization nitrophoska or nitrogen-phosphorus mixture is repeated. Fertilize additionally with wood ash.

Huge plants require increased nutrition, so every 2-3 weeks conduct more foliar feeding (after watering) solutions of microelements, infusions of digested green herbs.

Currently, the fertilizer market offers new forms and combinations of nutrients in complex complex fertilizers. When using these forms to fertilize the crop, remember that in order to grow the crop and not the vegetative mass, nitrogen fertilizers should not predominate in fertilizers when fertilizing.

Roeing

Roeing in eggplant care does double work: destroys weeds and soil crust and increases oxygen access to the roots. Loosen the soil to a depth of 4-5 cm, so as not to damage the roots close to the soil surface.

It is better to use raking or hoeing (raking the finely loosened soil to the plants). Loosen the soil, depending on the moisture level of its upper layer, usually on 2-3 days after irrigation.

Gartering and papering plants

For eggplant in greenhouse conditions it is more practical to grow low-growing varieties and hybrids. They do not require gartering, which often breaks the fragile stems. It is better to leave 2-3 strong shoots on the main stem.

Passage for eggplants is not necessary. There is no need to traumatize the plants unnecessarily. If necessary, remove the lower stems and side shoots (up to the first bud) that do not bear fruit and make it difficult to form the first flowers. In this case the nutrients will be used to increase the weight of the fruits that are already growing. It is best to leave 5-7 ovaries on one bush. Fruits will be larger.

For poor fruit setting, use the method of artificial pollination. Pollen from an opening flower is transferred with a soft brush from a yellow anther to the stigma of another flower. If you are not sure of the success, it is more practical to shake the plants slightly in the morning. Eggplant pollen is heavy and does not fly more than 1 m, so this method will contribute to more complete pollination.

Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
To the end of the season, remove from the upper branches of eggplant emerging flowers and ovaries and pinch the tops of shoots.

Protection from pests and diseases

The correct and complete preparation of the greenhouse for wintering, its disinfection dramatically reduce  the level of plant damage from diseases and pests.

Read our detailed material Preparation of the greenhouse for the next season. Disease prevention.

The control of diseases and pests  is difficult on eggplants. It is a crop of multiple harvesting, taking a long time. It is prohibited to use chemical means of protection on such crops.

Carefully following the requirements of agricultural technology and using bio means of protection during vegetation period can effectively reduce the level of plant damage by diseases and pests. Nowadays biological preparations protecting plants from voracious pests and fast spreading diseases and having no negative effect on human and animal health enter the market of protective means.

The most widespread diseases of eggplants are phytophthora, anthracnose, rots, verticillosis wilt. From biological preparations during vegetation on the leaf you can treat eggplants in 10-12-15 days throughout the season with biopreparations in tank mixtures using Planriz, Gliokladin, Gamair, Fitosporin, Alirin-B, Bactophyt etc.

When using biopreparations it is necessary to follow the recommendations. Otherwise, the positive effect may not appear.

The main pests of eggplant in greenhouse - whitefly, aphids and ants, thrips, spider mite - are also destroyed by biopreparations. The most common are "Bitoxybacillin", "Fitoverm", "Lepidocide", "Basamil", etc. "Aktofit can be used to treat plants even during harvesting, and Mycoafidin, Aversectin-C, Avertin-N are more effective during the early phases of eggplant development.

Read our detailed article Protection of eggplants from diseases and pests.

What eggplants are suitable for growing in the greenhouse?

Accultants are divided into 3 groups: low, medium and high. For a greenhouse or a tall greenhouse with temporary cover, it is better to choose medium or low-growing varieties. But keep in mind that the low-growers form a smaller yield. High-growers are less suitable for greenhouses, as they occupy a large area and are better grown in an open field.

Yellowing time in greenhouse conditions it is advisable to grow early and medium early varieties, the technical fruiting of which begins in 90-110 days.

Fruit quality The variety or hybrid is optimal if it is tolerant to temperature fluctuations (which is important if the hothouse is not heated), resistant to a number of diseases, has good taste and forms a high yield. They are more resistant to temperature changes, diseases and pests. Hybrids are more productive (especially high-growing ones), but they are inferior to varieties in taste (density of flesh, its aroma, taste, etc.).

For details about eggplant varieties and hybrids see article The best new eggplant varieties and hybrids for greenhouse and open field.

The following varieties and hybrids that I grow (or raised) myself are described. I choose my own varieties and hybrids so that I can get harvest in any summer weather. © ogorodnik

Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
Bacon "Sailor". © AgroRU
Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
Baclabjanum "Balagur". © ogorodnik

Best Eggplant Varieties for Greenhouse

Baclanth "Black Beauty" - medium maturing, bush compact. Does not require high temperatures for growth and development. Characterized by the location of the fruit in the lower part of the bush weighing 200-250 grams. Matures to technical ripeness in the absence of light 110-115 days. Fruits are oblong-cylindrical in shape, rind color ranging from dark purple to glossy black. The flesh is soft, medium-dense with a pleasant taste, light green in color. Resistant to disease. Used for cooking all kinds of dishes and canning.

Baclaus "Sailor" - for lovers of exotic. Sort of medium early. High (up to 1 m). The yield is average (up to 8 kg / sq. m). Fruits are typical for eggplants, weighing up to 500 g. The main color of the skin is light or dark lilac with white stripes. The flesh is tender, the aftertaste is pleasant, without bitterness. Can be eaten raw as well. Universal use.

Baclaus "Balagur" - variety of Russian selection. It is interesting in the arrangement of the fruits. Each inflorescence bears a bunch of 3-7 small fruits (50-130 g). Fructification is very early, not more than 6-7 kg per square meter. The first fruits in technical ripeness are removed in 80-85 days. The color of the skin of fruits lilac, saturated, with the transition to a light lilac. The shape is more often drop-shaped, but may be oblong oval. The flavor of flesh pleasant, very delicate. Resistant to tobacco mosaic and rot.

Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
Bacon "Marzipan" F1. © RusskijOgorod
Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
Aggplant "Bibo" F1. © NikitovkaSeeds
Eggplants in the greenhouse - growing rules and best varieties
Aggplant "Beef Heart" F1

The best eggplant hybrids for greenhouse

Aggplant "Marzipan" F 1 - - early, bush compact. The hybrid is very productive. The fruits are rounded, bright purple. The flesh is very soft, has a pleasant sweetish-fresh taste, without bitterness. Used for cooking fresh fruits and canning.

Baclaus "Bagheera" F 1 - early, the bush is compact, low-growing. High-yielding hybrid. Forms up to 12 kg of fruit per square meter. Soon-born, the fruits of technical ripeness ready for 100-110 days. Weight of the fruit of 250 to 350 g, oval-long, purple color, dark, greenish-white flesh, without bitterness. Practically does not get sick. Well tolerates transportation and storage. "Bagheera" can be grown in small containers on windowsills and stands.

Baclaus "Bull's Heart" F1 - mediately (technical ripeness of fruits comes to 110 days). The fruits are very large. Weight of the fruit is more than 500 g, color purple skin, glossy. The flesh is white, dense, no bitterness. Fruits are stored up to 2 weeks. Used for cooking fresh fruits and eggplant caviar.

Baclain "Fabina" F 1 -early, the bush is semi-spreading low-growing. Resistant to verticillosis and other diseases, little damaged by spider mites. Fruits are elongated dark purple, with a glossy sheen, weighing 120-150 g, have a pronounced mushroom taste. Fruits have a long shelf life without loss of appearance and quality. Used for various dishes of fresh fruit and for souring.

Baclaus "Bibo" F1 - for lovers of exoticism. Hybrid of Dutch selection. According to the terms of maturity refers to medium to early to medium. Highly grown (1m or more). High yielding. The skin of the fruit is white, shape - typical of eggplant. The flesh without bitterness, white, soft consistency, delicacy in taste, with a pleasant aftertaste. Resistant to pests, Fusarium and viruses.

Eggplant "Purple Wonder" F1 - hybrid little susceptible to the duration of daylight all season of growth. Early maturing, low-growing. Has a complex resistance to diseases and pests. The yield is average. Fruits weigh up to 200 g, elongated spindle-like, dark purple skin, shiny. The flesh of medium density, without bitterness. Used for any kind of processing, including pickling.

Dear reader! You are offered the article, based on own experience of growing eggplants in the protected ground. Complement it with your experience in the comments, we will be happy to communicate.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Fields marked with * are required. *