Yellow raspberry is one of the most interesting crops of our gardens. Yes, you will not see it very often, but if you try to grow it, it is impossible to refuse, because it is not only a delicacy, but also a beauty!
Benefits of yellow raspberry
Yellow raspberry berries have fewer acids, which is why they taste sweeter than red raspberries.
The small amount of anthocyanins (coloring substances) allows to eat them and people prone to allergies, and pregnant women and small children. High content of folic acid defines it as a means of strengthening the immune system, purifying the blood, maintaining healthy new cells.
Like its red "rival", yellow raspberry is a good expectorant and diaphoretic and antipyretic, has the ability to relieve spasms from tired vocal cords, helps with intestinal disorders, helps to remove toxins from the body.
Yellow raspberries are primarily consumed as food fresh, but also in processing they are not worse than red berries. They are used to make marmalade, marshmallows, jams, compotes...
Peculiarities of yellow raspberries
The majority of yellow raspberry varieties belong to the remontant group. All modern varieties have high yield, up to 6 - 9 kg per bush, have large berries, from 5 to 10, and even 12 g, extended fruit bearing, increased resistance to diseases and pests, low temperatures. This statement is actually true, but only in relation to the old varieties, modern varieties have a dense knuckle, excellent marketable appearance and are well stored.
Cultivation of yellow raspberry
The agrotechnics of yellow raspberry practically does not differ from the agrotechnics of growing red varieties.
The place for planting
Saplings are planted on open sunny areas, in places where there is no stagnant moisture and there is protection from cold northern winds. It is better if the rows are located from north to south or northeast to southwest, because this way the plants have the opportunity to get maximum light, which is especially important for areas with short cold summers.
If there is a choice, the most acceptable option for berry planting is a flat area or slope up to 8°C. The place, after the nightshade is not acceptable, because of the defeat of this group of crops by verticillosis wilt. Do not plant raspberries and after the raspberry bed, leaving the ground to rest for 5 years.
Soil for yellow raspberry
The best results can be achieved by planting yellow raspberries on sandy loam and light loam soils. On sandy soils, planting will need more laborious care. But on heavy acidic soils it is better not to plant raspberries at all (if soil pH < 5.5 - it is not suitable for planting raspberries).
Times of planting
Like red raspberries, yellow varieties are planted in autumn terms - in late September and until mid October (in southern regions a few weeks later or early spring).
The most effective way of planting is the trench method with a width of 1.2 - 1.6 m (and for tall varieties and 2 m), trench width 0.5 - 0.6 m. The density of plants in a row is guided by the shootability of the variety, it can be 0.4 m and more.
Saplings at planting do not deepen.
Care for yellow raspberry
For yellow raspberry to give a good harvest (stated in the description to the variety) for it needs competent care. And the first thing to start with - fertilizers.
Please also read this. How to properly care for chrysanthemums?
If the culture is planted by the trench method, for a few years about the application of fertilizers can be forgotten. In other cases, it needs nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, boron, iron, manganese.
On how to properly feed the raspberry is written many articles and given a lot of recommendations, but the unified opinion of scientists is the following: the yield of this culture depends largely on the strength of growth of the bush at the initial stage of life. Therefore, the first three years of the raspberry tree must be adequately supplied with nitrogen. For this purpose, already in February-March nitrogen fertilizers are applied under it, the first two years localizing them closer to bushes, and then dispersing on a row.
Sometimes a dose is divided into two parts, the first time fertilizing raspberry from autumn. In this case in the autumn-winter period some of the nitrogen is washed out, but on the other hand, spring feeding stimulates the raspberry to form a lot of shoots, which is also not very good.
It is also possible to choose the following scheme: in the first year of plant life to break nitrogen fertilization and in three parts - the first to spend at the beginning of May, the second and the third in two weeks, with an interval of two weeks. In subsequent years to leave only the spring fertilizer.
The best nitrogen fertilizer in this case is urea, but not in dry form, and diluted in water (50 g per 10 liters). Under a bush such a solution is enough in the volume of 1 liter.
The evidence of full development of raspberry bushes (not excessive and not retarded) will be the growth of 10 - 12 strong replacement shoots, height to 1.5 - 2 m (depending on the variety), with the length of internodes (in the middle part of the shoot) about 8 - 10 cm.
All other elements are introduced as required, which can be determined either by laboratory method, or guided by external signs: coloring and general condition of leaves, length of internodes, intensity of shoot formation.
If you do not use fertilizers on your plot - apply cow or horse manure to raspberry in autumn every 2 - 3 years, in the amount of 2,5 - 3 kg per m sq, As well as arrange fertilization with ashes.
The watering of yellow raspberries
Another factor that has a direct influence on the amount of yield is watering. In the south, raspberry is watered from 6 to 8 times during vegetation: during intensive growth of shoots, before flowering, in a phase of green setting and after harvesting. In the conditions of the average strip 2 - 4 waterings are enough: during intensive shoots growth and after harvest.
Pouring raspberry can be either by furrows or by sprinkling.
Gartering yellow raspberry
If the selected variety requires gartering, by the second year after planting, the posts should be installed in the raspberry rows and the trellis stretched on them. The first row of wire is stretched at a height of 1.2 - 1.5 m from the soil surface (depending on the height of the plants), the two lower rows on both sides at a height of 0.6 - 0.7m. Gartering is done before the buds open.
Trimming yellow raspberries
Yellow raspberries also need proper pruning. Remontant varieties are pruned either immediately after fruiting, removing only the fruit-bearing shoots, or in the autumn or early spring period, completely cutting the bush. In the first variant, this gives an opportunity to strengthen new shoots and give a full-fledged autumn harvest. In the second - forces the plants to skip the first, but give a more weighty second crop.
Neremontant varieties are cut in one or two stages, in order to increase branching of the first and second order.
It is also important to remember that yellow remontant varieties do not like thickening, responding to it by reducing the quantity and quality of yield. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out thinning in the spring on the raspberry, leaving 4 to 7 well-formed shoots per bush.
Please also read this. Calendar of gardening works for February
An important aspect of growing raspberries is also the control of weeds and loosening the soil.
Covering yellow raspberry for the winter
In most cases, yellow raspberry varieties have sufficient resistance to low temperatures, but where the winter is cold for them it is better to take care that strong frosts do not ruin the raspberry. To do this, at the end of September - October, the raspberry branches are bent along the row and tied so that they are no higher than 0.4 m above the ground. In places where especially low temperatures are observed in the absence of snow, the bent to the ground raspberries are additionally covered with straw or earth.
Raising yellow raspberries
Most often yellow raspberry varieties are propagated by seedlings. However, if desired, or if it is impossible to get planting material, you can also try to get plants from seeds. This matter is not simple - the raspberry seed material requires special storage conditions, proper preparation for sowing and has poor germination, but if you tinker with it, you can get a fairly good result, with satisfactory, or even high, yield potential.
In order to propagate yellow raspberry by seeds, you need to wash mature berries from pulp, dry the seeds obtained and put them into a paper bag for storage. By the end of September, place the seed material in a sack (it can be made from a kapron stocking) and soak for a day in water. Then, right in the bag, wrap the young plants in spaced 5 cm sphagnum moss (a layer of 3 - 5 cm) and place them in a cool place, with a temperature of 2 - 3 °C. If moss is difficult to find - put it in a container with wet sand. In the first decade of April, sow the seeds on the bed in rows with a row spacing of 40 cm. After the seedlings rise them.
Summer for the seedlings produce the usual care: watering, loosen, remove weeds. In autumn, young raspberries are transplanted to a permanent place. At the same time, plants with dark thorns are discarded - they will not grow raspberries with yellow berries.
Prospective yellow raspberry varieties
"Yellow Giant". Semi-remontant variety. Mid-early. Has repeated autumn fruiting. One of the sweetest table varieties. Berries amber-yellow, very large, weighing about 9 g, dense, fragrant, almost does not crumble, suitable for transportation. Yield, with proper care, is from 4 to 8 kg per bush. Shrub high, powerful, spreading, well produces side shoots, reaching a height of 2.5 m (shoots hiss shiny), requires tying to a trellis. It has a high resistance to pests and diseases. It is fairly winter hardy.
Morning Dew11> (Polish name: 'Porana Rosa'). Industrial variety. One of the most aromatic. The berries are round, amber in color, dense, weighing from 5 to 10 g, with a sour-sweet taste. Yields up to 3 kg per plant. Has a medium-height bush, up to 1.8 m, upright, powerful shoots. Not demanding to the conditions of cultivation, but in heat loses saccharinity. Has a low resistance to fungal diseases. The period of fruiting is the first half of June, the second decade of August before frost. The greatest yield gives a single fruiting.
"Slastena yellow". Medium early variety, not remontant. Characterized by high resistance to diseases and pests, medium winter hardiness. The berries are yellow and white-yellow, oblong, medium to large, weighing from 3 to 6 g, fragrant, dessert taste, not shattered, but not suitable for transportation. Yield, with proper care, from 3 to 8 kg per bush. Shrub medium-height to 1.5 m, spreading. Shrieking ability is moderate. Shoots are hispanic.
"Yaroslavna", Brusvyana yellow, or Rosyanitsa". Medium maturing variety. Remontant. More suitable for the south. Has two periods of fruiting - from the second decade of June, and from the second decade of August to frost. The berries are bright yellow, large, sour-sweet, weighing 10 - 12 g. Transportability is average. Yields are 4 kg per bush. Stem type bush, medium height, up to 1.7 m. Does not require a garter. Shoots are slightly branched. Spikes few.
'Fall Gold' ('Fall Gold'), 'Golden Autumn', sometimes translated as 'Golden Rain'. Remontant variety. It has a high resistance to pests and diseases. The berries are golden yellow, conical, fragrant, very sweet, dessert taste, weighing from 4 to 7 g. Yield up to 7 kg per bush. Fruiting is elongated. The bush is powerful, sprawling, up to 2.5 m high
"Orange Wonder" . Remontant variety, but recommended for single fruiting. Very unpretentious, sun-loving and winter-hardy. It is highly resistant to diseases and pests. The berries are bright orange, oblong-conical, dense, weighing 4.5 to 6 g, won't shatter, have high transportability. The autumn harvest of 2 to 2.5 kg per bush. Shrub height up to 1.5 m, semi-spreading, requires garter.
'Fool Gold' ('Fool') , or 'Golden Jester'. A remontant variety, but recommended for a single crop. Resistant to heat and low temperatures. The berries are light amber, very sweet, aromatic, weighing from 4 to 9 g. Transportable. The bush is tall, up to 1.6 m.
Please also read this. Aubrieta - bright and lush on sandy soils