Raspberries are a favorite berry in the garden. In order for the shrub to constantly form good harvests of large berries, raspberries need careful care, especially in the spring period. Spring care includes a set of procedures that should be introduced into the system and performed annually. Raspberry work that is done in the spring season as isolated forays will not benefit the beloved berry, and the owner will not be satisfied with a sweet harvest.
When to begin spring work in the raspberry tree?
Spring care of raspberries begins in the first month of spring. The set of obligatory annual procedures includes:
- Hot showers;
- soil care;
- protection against pests;
- protection against diseases.
Hot shower for raspberry
- in the first days of March, still on the snow, shovel away from raspberry bushes accumulated over the winter garbage and remove it from the plot (if this work is not done in autumn);
- the garbage must be burned, as it can overwinter pests, and semi-digested leaves can be infected with fungal diseases;
- heat water to boiling and fill the 5-liter watering can;
- approximately from the height of 0,7-1,0 m through the spout with dispenser water the raspberry bushes.
This procedure is harmless to raspberries. By the time the hot water reaches the bushes, its temperature will drop to +70°C or lower. Such water temperature will not harm dormant raspberry buds, but will cause death of a significant number of pests, including nematodes, which cannot be eliminated by any poisons.
On average, 1 pour of hot water is enough to treat 2 - 4 bushes. If the raspberry bushes are large (10-15 branches), use a 5 liter watering can for 2 bushes.
Spring raspberry pruning
After hot shower, as soon as the positive temperature is established and the top layer of soil dries out, the raspberry bushes are cut and shaped.
Despite the method of planting raspberry, it is more practical to prune in 2 stages.
The first stage is to remove at the ground weak shoots, fruit-bearing, crooked, thickening branches and stems with swellings at the base (where larvae of gallica overwinter). The remaining stems should be thinned out, leaving 6-8 stems for bush formation and up to 15-20 stems per linear meter for trench planting. Densification will lead to a decrease in yield and crushing of berries.
The second stage of spring pruning of raspberries is carried out when a stable positive air temperature is established not below +5 °С. During this period, the buds are already open, the tops of the culture shoots have moved into growth and it is clearly visible how the bush has overwintered. The final revision is removing the skipped fruit-bearing raspberry stems, frosted stem tops.
The healthy raspberry stems have the tops cut to a length of 20 cm to get additional side fruiting shoots, the frosted ones are cut to the first live buds. Spring pruning of raspberry is important as it creates optimal conditions for the formation of an abundant crop, increases the duration of fruiting period of the crop. © PavelRodimov
Treating the soil in the raspberry bed
After pruning, all residues are burned. In order not to trample the soil in the raspberry, it is necessary in between the rows to lay boards, pieces of smooth slate, other bedding and work only with them, without stepping into the rows of raspberry.
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In rows loosen the soil not deeper than 8-10 cm, destroying weeds, water and mulch a layer up to 15 cm. Straw, compost, humus are used as mulch for raspberries. Mulching will save moisture, which quickly evaporates under the rays of the spring sun and winds. Organic mulch is a good source of nutrients for the raspberry root system. It is not possible to mulch damp soils with a close location of groundwater. They are only loosened after feeding and watering.
To avoid cluttering new areas of the raspberry berry with brushwood, it is fenced with smooth slate, galvanized, other materials to a depth of 15-20 cm.
When growing in cold regions, raspberry is removed from supports in winter, which reduces the possibility of its freezing under adverse weather conditions. If a trellis or bush method was used, after pruning and clearing the site, begin tying the raspberry bushes. Trellis and stakes are most often used on large-fruited varieties.
With the trellis method of cultivation, the distance between the raspberry bushes remains at least 60-70 cm. The stems are fan-shaped and placed on a trellis at a distance of 10-12 cm. Each stem is tied to a cross wire in 2 places so that the top does not fall down.
When raspberry bush formation the stake is hammered between 2 bushes and from each to the stake is tied (separately each stem) half of the bush. With this method of tying, step pruning of stems is used. Each stalk is cut to a different height - 10-15-20 cm.
When growing raspberries on supports plants do not shade each other, more berries ripen simultaneously, it is more comfortable to remove fruits.
Raspberry fertilization in spring
Even though annual fertilization in autumn, raspberries are additionally fertilized in spring. Fertilizing is especially necessary for raspberry on low fertile soils. Fertilizers are applied in the form of solutions or solid granulated forms. Fertilizer is necessarily applied under watering, followed by mulching with layer of mulch not less than 5 cm. © Dorling Kindersley
The first feeding of raspberries is carried out immediately after snowfall.
Usually nitrophoska, kemira, complex mixtures, other types of mineral fertilizers are applied under raspberries. Norms of mineral fertilizers are from 60-80 g/sq. m. On depleted soils fertilizer rates increase to 80-100 g / sq. m.
May include ammonium, but preferably potassium nitrate or urea at the rate of 30-40 g / sq. m, while making a simultaneous application of wood ash to 150 g / bush. Ash contributes to the deoxidation of the soil, which is acidified by the frequent use of ammonium nitrate. In addition, the ash contains a rich set of micro- and macroelements.
You can use organic fertilizers - humus or compost - 3-5 kg / sq. m.
Finishing the application of fertilizers, the raspberry plant is watered. After the water is absorbed, mulch with humus, peat, shavings, straw, other types of mulch. When applying organic fertilizers in the feeding mulch humus is not used.
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The second feeding raspberry (phase of the beginning of ovary formation) is carried out in 25-30 days.
Indeed, this feeding is usually carried out with organic fertilizers. 0.5-1.0 kg of manure or poultry manure is diluted in 10-12 and 12-15 liters of water, respectively. Per running meter the consumption of the solution is 2-3 liters. Despite the fertilizer in the form of a solution, after fertilizing necessarily water the soil and mulch.
If the first fertilizer was introduced organics, the second fertilizer is introduced superphosphate and potassium salt at the rate of respectively 30-40 and 20-25 g per square meter area.
The third feeding of raspberry is carried out after harvesting.
With the shallow recultivation (15-20 cm) of inter-row fertilizer to make the basic mineral fertilizer to 80-120 g / sq.m. area. They are carried out according to the state of the raspberry bed and weather conditions. Especially frequent and sufficient watering is necessary for raspberries during flowering and ovary formation. With a lack of water, berries turn out small, dry and bony. Watering is carried out along the furrows. The soil should soak up 10-15 cm layer of water. After watering mulching is necessary.
Raspberry protection from diseases and pests
Like all garden crops, raspberries are subject to diseases (powdery mildew, anthracnose, purple spotting and others) and pest attacks (raspberry gallica, mite, stem fly, raspberry beetle and others). It is forbidden to use chemical means of protection against pests and diseases on raspberry. Only treatment with biological preparations is allowed.
On raspberries, first of all, preventive measures are used:
- The site is kept clean of weeds, trimming residues and other debris that can serve as a refuge for reproduction and overwintering pests.
- Feeding and watering are carried out according to the requirements of agricultural machinery in order to avoid excessive amounts of moisture and fertilizers to provoke fungal and bacterial and viral diseases.
Raspberry treatment with chemicals
In early spring before bud blossoming raspberry is treated with 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid. It is used separately from other preparations and means.
Plant treatment with bio-preparations
Raspberry can be treated against diseases:
Preparations recommended for raspberry pest damage:
Bioinsecticidal and biofungicidal preparations can be used in tank mixtures according to the recommendations. The maximum effect is achieved by diluting the biopreparations in accordance with the instructions. Increasing the concentration as well as decreasing the concentration will not produce the expected effect of treatment.
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