The radish is relatively rare among the favorite vegetable crops in our gardens. At the same time radish sowing (Raphanus sativus L.) has many cultivated forms, which are successfully grown all over the world. Among them dominate all the well-known - black radish, large white (daikon), Chinese Margelan (Lobo), green, sweet, sowing (radish), oil radish and others. Why radish should grow and what features has its agricultural technology, we tell in the article.
Does the radish need in the vegetable garden?
Our gardeners have undeservedly neglected the radish. In ancient Greece it was considered the queen of vegetables and was widely cultivated in its northern possessions. In China since ancient times, radish has been grown as one of the main vegetable crops. Nowadays, in all countries radish and its varieties are again given considerable attention. And for good reason.
The roots of all garden forms of radish contain vitamins, macro- and microelements, essential oils, fiber, amino acids, more than 6% sugar and 2.5% proteins. All parts of the vegetable are rich in lysozyme, which has a strong bactericidal effect.
Radish is used in medicine to treat coughs, gastritis, liver and gallbladder disease, dyspepsia and other diseases. Radish juice is a good wound healing agent. The seeds produce essential oils used in industry and cosmetics and other areas of the economy.
What radishes can be grown in beds
It is the most common in the CIS, compared to other varieties. A biannual crop that forms a root crop weighing from 200 to 350 g in the first year, and seeds in the second year. Late maturing crop. Sown in late summer early fall. Root vegetables in technical ripeness are harvested in a month. Black radish roots are covered with black skin, flesh inside is white, slightly bitter and has a pungent taste because of the large amount of mustard oil. Used in the diet in fresh and processed form. At home, radish juice with honey is used for bronchial disease, loss of voice (in singers), dyspepsia, arthritis. Black radish is used for long-term storage.
Best varieties to grow: "Nochka", "Queen of Spades", "Winter Black", "Murzilka".
Chinese radish (Lobo)
Lobo is also called margellan radish. Roots are round, cylindrical, or elongated-lengthy in shape. The color of the root can be light or dark green, pink-red, purple-lilac and other colors or shades. Its flesh ranges from white to pink-red. The taste is not sharp, reminiscent of radish, can be classified as neutral, which makes it possible to use lobo as a food for liver diseases. Promotes quick healing of purulent wounds and removes toxins and salts from the body.
Best varieties to grow : "Red Heart" (inside - like watermelon, top - green, no bitterness, perfectly stored all winter). Of the other varieties, "Elephant's Fang", "Pink Ring", "October-1" and "October-2", "Margelanskaya" can be recommended for cultivation.
A variety of Lobo can be considered a green radish. Sometimes at home gardeners call the green radish also Margelan. Homeland is Uzbekistan, where it is distributed as widely as in the regions of Russia - black.
It tastes tender, pleasant, without pronounced bitterness and sharpness. The root crop is oblong in shape, less often round. Skin bicolor: from the root white, and to the head turns into a light green. There are other shades of root crops.
They have a high content of mineral salts, fiber, sugars. Has a high nutritional value. Indispensable in dietary meals. Green radish varieties (for example "Green Goddess" ) are summery and not suitable for long-term storage.
Big white radish, daikon
Growers increasingly recognize daikon (Japanese radish). Appreciated for its excellent taste qualities, high yield, unpretentiousness when growing. Root long, cylindrical shape. The skin is white, the flesh is juicy, sweet, with a slight bitterness. There are many varieties and hybrids of daikon radish with maturity dates ranging from a few days (they are used immediately) to several months (without loss of taste). Not only the roots, but also young leaves and seeds are used as food. Daikon is used for cooking independent dishes, adding it to salads and soups.
For more details on growing daikon radishes, see the article Daikon - a "giant" pleasure.
Best varieties to grow: "White Fang", "Japanese Long", "Sasha", "Russian Size", "Big Bull", "Minovase", "Tokinashi", "Miyashige", "Kameida", "Nerima", "Neningo".
Redish is the most popular crop of all types or varieties of seed radish. Rapid-ripening varieties provide the earliest vitamin vegetables.
Root crops, compared with other radish varieties, have a small size - from 2.5 cm to 4-5 cm. The shape of the root is round to elongated, like a carrot. The skin of the rootcrop is delicate, mostly red in color with various shades. The flesh - from soft, crunchy to dense, the taste is noticeable spice.
For long-term storage (up to 4 months in the cellar or basement) grow late maturing varieties. The rest are used fresh immediately after harvesting.
The best varieties for growing: "French Breakfast", "Heat", "Red Giant", "Early Red", "Zlata", "Red with white tip", "Ice icicle", "Deca", "Goddess".
Let's list all varieties of radish seed in the article. We mentioned the most common varieties of the vegetable crop, which have high quality indicators.
In addition to the varieties of radish used as a vegetable of the garden, gardeners everywhere grow another - oil radish - inedible for humans, but very necessary in the household.
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How to grow a good crop of radishes, read the article Why radishes fail?
Oil radish does not form edible root crops and is used by gardeners as a forage plant or siderat. This crop tolerates easily the lack of moisture and temporary temperature drop. It can be cultivated on clay soils. The plant is one of the best cultivated plants growing in a short period of time and forms the superficial mass up to 1,5-2,0 m high and has powerful root system. The root penetrates deeply into the soil and plays the role of an excellent loosener while enriching it with microelements as it decomposes.
Fast growth of above-ground mass suppresses weed growth and root system suppresses soil nematodes. A good honeybee. The seeds contain a high percentage of vegetable oil used in pharmacology, cosmetology and even in cooking.
The following varieties are in greatest demand for use in farms : "Sabina", "Tambovchanka", "Nika", "Rainbow", "Jumping", "Brutus".
Agro technology for growing radishes
The radish varieties belong to the group of vegetables that are propagated mainly by sowing seeds in the open or closed ground, and in some regions the sowing is carried out under temporary shelters.
Propagation through seedlings is still only tested, the reviews on this subject are different. Therefore, the article will discuss the reproduction of radish through sowing by seeds with the appropriate care, protection from diseases and pests, harvesting and storage.
The agricultural technique of growing any variety of radish is very similar. The differences are mainly traceable to the timing of sowing and the quality indicators of root crops and seeds.
To grow a quality harvest of radish roots it is necessary to observe the agronomic requirements of cultivation, which include:
- sowing in time in the open field, in the greenhouse, under a temporary cover;
- the choice of variety adapted to regional conditions (released varieties);
- determination of purpose of variety or hybrid (summer consumption in food, storage terms).
When to sow radish
All varieties of radish belong to the plants of short light day, the light duration of which should be less than 12 hours. With a longer light duration, the plants very quickly pass the light stages of development and by mid-summer they blossom. In this case, the root crop becomes coarse, even woody, and is not good for food.
So it is better to sow radishes to obtain a good crop of root crops in the second half of summer, when the light period begins to decrease. Early varieties that form a root crop in 1-2 months can be sown in early spring when the light period is short enough (e.g. radish).
Every variety of radish can be divided into 3 groups of varieties by the time of arrival of technical ripeness of root crops: early-ripening, medium-ripening and late-ripening.
Early-ripening varieties are sown in the southern regions in the first half of March to mid-April (depending on weather conditions). Early varieties in the central belt, Moscow region and north of the country are sown in the first and second decade of April (under cover) and already in the third decade of May-early June, harvest. The harvest has time to form, but low. Root crops weigh within 230-300 g. Root crops in the technical ripeness harvesting is carried out in 40-45-50 days.
Average ripe varieties sown in the southern regions in the second half of April-first half of May, north - in the first half of June. Root crops are harvested in 70-90-100 days. If the medium-ripening variety is intended for storage, it is better to sow it in late July-early August in the south, and to the north - in late June.
Late-ripening varieties (they are also called winter) are sown depending on the region in late July - first half of August. Root crops are harvested in 90-120 days (late October), always ahead of the onset of permanent frosts.
Radish for winter storage better sown in the first decade of July and harvested after 4 months (before the onset of frost).
In northern regions it is better to sow mid- and late-season varieties directly in the open ground.
Selection of location for sowing
Rye is a sunny crop and when grown in the shade, it dramatically reduces yields. It is frost-resistant and tolerates temperature drops from -2°C (after-sowing young seedlings) to -7°C (fully developed plants).
Radish feels comfortable in an open, ventilated area. They can be planted as a separate crop in vegetable beds, compacted beds with garlic, onions and other crops with the same requirements to the conditions of cultivation, watering, protective measures and fertilizers. The best soils for radish are loam and sandy loam soil with neutral or weakly acid reaction. Radish does not tolerate stagnant water, so it is better to choose elevated areas.
Preparation of soil
If radish is grown in the crop rotation, the best predecessors are nightshades, zucchinis, cucumbers, garlic, peas.
In the spring sowing the soil is prepared in the fall. When sowing a second turn in the summer (depending on the previous crop), you can not fertilize the soil, and only recultivate to a depth of 25-35 cm, depending on the size and shape of root crops (round, like radish, black radish or long-cylindrical, as in daikon) and then fertilize.
The manure worsens the quality of root crops, so fresh organic matter is applied under the preceding crop, and directly under the radish - humus, mature biohumus at the rate of 0.3 buckets per 1 m² of area.
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If the soil is highly fertile, then restricted to the introduction of medium doses of complete mineral (nitroammophoska, nitrophoska) or phosphorus-potassium fertilizer (potassium sulfate) by 20-30 g/m² area and 0.5 cup of wood ash. If you make your own seeds, they should be calibrated and disinfected in a pink manganese solution before sowing. You can soak the seeds before sowing, but not necessarily. Purchased seeds usually do not need additional preparation.
Sow the seeds in a windless cloudy day in previously marked furrows by row method. The distance between the rows is, depending on the variety, 20-25-30 cm, and in a row 12-15 cm. The furrows must be sufficiently moistened (but not flooded with water).
The depth of the seed is up to 3 cm. In a hole place 2-4 seeds, so that after sprouting leave the strongest seedling. Radish does not tolerate overgrowth, so during the growing season carry out 1-2 more thinning. The soil under radish should always be moist and fluffed with ash to save seedlings from cruciferous flea.
Care for radish
To obtain quality root crops, it is necessary to maintain high moisture after sowing and up to 2 weeks after sprouting, then switch to watering (but not abundant, once a week). To retain moisture in the soil longer, cover the bed with foil before sprouting. Further mulch the soil after watering with peat or mature humus.
First thinning 7-9 days after sprouts, and the second and, if necessary, the third - as the plants grow. If the root crops will be crowded, they will be small, crooked.
The timely loosening and weeding are very important. It should be remembered that the soil compacted by irrigation delays the normal development of root crops.
The radish is fed twice during the growing season:
- First time in the phase of cotyledon leaves; prepare a solution of "Kemira" or ammonium nitrate at the rate of 20 g per 10 liters of water and treat them 3-4 m² area;
- the second feeding is carried out in the phase of 3-4 leaflets; bring 30 g nitrophoska, azofoska, or "Kemira" per 1 m² area; the second feeding can also bring wood ash.
For 3 weeks before harvesting, nutrition must be stopped.
Redwood protection against pests and diseases
The main pests of radish are cruciferous fleas, cabbage moth, stem and root nematode, cabbage aphid, cabbage leaf beetle, wireworm, moths, slugs.
The safest way to control insect pests is to use bio-insecticides (strictly according to recommendations). Biopreparations are not harmful to human health, animals and birds.
Aversectin-S, Pecilomycin can be used against nematodes. Against wireworm - "Nemabakt", "Entonem-F", "Biodan". Lepidocid, Bitoxybacillin etc. successfully destroy pests.
Manual remedies include potato haft infusion, decoction of tomato stems or chamomile infusion against leaf-eating pests, aphids, fleas. The most widespread diseases affecting radish include false powdery mildew, powdery mildew, fomosis, blackleg, vascular bacteriosis, cabbage mosaic, red and white rot, scab and some others.
The safest to use on a dacha plot, as well as in protection against pests, are biofungicides: "Trichodermin", "Trichocin", "Alirin-S", "Bactophyt", "Ampelomycin", "Phytobacteriomycin".
The following biofungicides are effective for simultaneous soil and plant treatment - Gliokladin, Fitosporin-M, Gamair, Fitoverm, Bisolbifit, Alirin-B.
Treat plants and soil in strict accordance with the recommendations.
Harvesting and storing radishes
The radishes are carefully dug up, shaken off the ground, and the haulm cut off, leaving 4-5 cm at the base. This method contributes to the preservation of moisture in the root crop. Harvested roots carefully and gently sorted.
Roots selected for storage dry in the shade with good ventilation and moved to a permanent place of storage. During storage radish does not lose its useful and medicinal properties. Stored for long periods use only those varieties that are labeled "For storage".
Storage period early radish varieties do not exceed 7-20 days. They are used immediately for food. Can be stored simply in an open container for up to 5-7 days. Conveniently stored in a polyethylene bag at a temperature of +2 ... +3 ° C and humidity of 95-97% in cellars and basements, in the refrigerator.
Medium-maturing varieties are usually placed in cellars and other cool rooms with a temperature +2 ... -1 ° C and humidity not exceeding 95%. Root crops are placed in dense cardboard boxes with holes on the top and sides or in small wooden crates, interspersed with slightly damp sand, in layers of 5-8 cm. Storage period from 1 to 2-3 months.
Late maturing varieties survive the long winter storage best. Root crops are stored in cellars, vegetable pits and other specially prepared premises at +2 ... -3°C, humidity within 82-87% in bulk or in crates. If properly prepared, it can last up to 200 days.
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