My garden, my pride!

Independent Preparation Of Em Preparations

, Admin
  • Part 1. A healthy vegetable garden without chemicals
  • Part 2. Self-preparation of EM preparations
  • Part 3. Increasing the natural fertility of the soil by EM technology

Technology of land cultivation for harvesting (firstly grain, and then other crops) began before our era with the ancient Sumerians. Having no implements other than a sharpened stick, they produced up to 200 cwt/ha of barley and wheat. Since then, the land has been constantly subjected to violent interference with the natural processes occurring in the soil, gradually destroying the established equilibrium relations of creative and destructive cultures of flora and fauna. It is their interaction that forms the humus we need so much, which determines the ability of the soil to provide the green plants of the earth with nutrition.

Humus is the result of the work of millions of microscopic organisms, some of which decompose the organic basis of the earth into chemical elements, while others, conversely, gather from them new organic compounds that serve to nourish the green plants. Hence the main goal of biological farming is to help humus formation, but without interfering with the natural processes occurring in the soil.

This role is performed in EM technology by soil regenerators or effective micro-organisms living in the soil in the form of aerobic and anaerobic fungi and bacteria. Soil fertility regenerators are not fertilizers. They cannot increase fertility if their food - organic matter - is absent.

Consequently, as with any other form of natural farming, in the EM technology needs natural organic matter entering the soil. This can be straw, organic waste in the form of manure, chicken manure, humus, excluding mineral fertilizers, pesticides and other, uncharacteristic soil inclusions.

Independent preparation of EM preparations
Laying compost with effective microorganisms.

Providing EM nutrient medium

For the EM introduced with the working solution to work in the soil in full force it is necessary to provide them with nutrition.

Remember! All works with EM are carried out on wet soil. In a dry substrate they do not work and die.

If the soil is fertile enough (chernozems), but compacted and contains a lot of weeds, it should be populated with EM first. In autumn and spring, after destroying the green mass of weeds, moisten the soil with a small irrigation and then, through a watering can, pour the working solution of EM in concentration 1:100 (1 liter of water / 10 ml of working solution of EM). The same procedure can be done in the middle of the season and 2-3 weeks before the onset of cold weather. During the spring and summer period EM will produce a certain amount of humus. The soil will go into winter enriched with nutrients. The agrotechnics for increasing soil fertility will be described in the final article.

If the soil is depleted in nutrition, after harvesting by watering provoke friendly sprouts of weeds. The surface treatment of the soil for 7-10 cm destroy the weeds, apply organic fertilizers (manure, humus, chicken manure, etc.). Tuck them into the top layer of soil by loosening (not overkilling, especially with the turnover of the layer) to a depth of 10 cm. Soiled organics is watered with working solution (1:10) or 1 liter/100 ml from a watering can, and mulched, because EM die in the dry soil.

In early spring, beds, treated since autumn with working EM solutions, cover with film, creating a greenhouse effect. When the soil is heated up to +8 ... +10°С, EM starts working. Not earlier than in 2-3 weeks the bed can be used. By the way, in spring and autumn you can additionally use sowing of cider plants. In order not to buy "Baikal EM-1" concentrate annually the soil fertility regenerators in the form of EM-extract, EM-compost, EM-urgas, EM-5 - the basic solution for disease and pest control can be prepared at home.

The obtained solutions in their quality even exceed the basic, prepared from purchased concentrate "Baikal EM-1". In addition, they practically cost the owner free of charge. As organic nutrition for EM crops, autumn leaves, vegetable harvest waste (only healthy material), weeds and other wastes can be put into the soil. The plot will be clean, and the EMs will get the necessary food.

Independent preparation of EM preparations
The basis for EM preparations can be prepared from sour milk. © Moti Scotti

Preparation and use of EM-extract (from own experience)

As a product, EM-extract is a fermented mass of green weeds, dressed with a basic solution of EM-preparation. Prepared EM-extract consists of liquid and solid parts. The liquid part is a homemade base solution, while the solid residue is a ready-made organic fertilizer. According to the terms of preparation EM-extract is divided into winter and summer. Preparation of the winter variant is necessary, because the use of EM preparation starts in early spring, as soon as the soil warms up to +10°С. The working solution is also necessary in greenhouses when preparing soil mixture, seeds, sowing and planting seedlings.

Winter basic EM-extract

In a 50-liter stainless steel barrel I insert a thick film bag. It is more convenient to close hermetically the prepared mixture of ingredients. Barrel is 2/3 filled (with a seal, but not stuffing) with pre-shredded, household waste. Dry and green unseeded weeds, paper, vegetable crops (not infested with diseases), shavings, food scraps, straw, hay (not rotten). Into this mass I introduce 1-2 kg of chicken, pigeon manure or fresh manure.

In a 50 kg barrel I pour 0,5 l of basic solution (prepared from Baikal EM-1 concentrate) and 0,5 kg of old jam, strained from berries or 0,5 kg of sugar. I fill the dressing in a barrel with warm (not hot) water so that the mixture is hidden under it. Water must be chlorine-free, otherwise the EMs will die. Thoroughly stir everything. Tightly (so that no air enters) I pack the film, put a boulder on top and a couple of bricks on it. The container should stand in a warm room: a garage, a shed, the basement. The temperature must be between +16 ... +20 ° C, you can go higher up to +25 ° C. Fermentation lasts 3-4 weeks.

By the end of the second week (I look at the state, maybe earlier) in the fermenting mixture accumulates gas. Carefully once every 3-5 days I open the film, stir the mixture and release the accumulated gases. Each time I check the pH of the solution. Milky-sour or rather silage pleasant smell and pH = 3,5 indicate the readiness of the extract.

I strain the basic solution and pour into bottles. From 0.5 liters of base solution of concentrate I get 14-15 liters of homemade base solution. It is stored for 3-5 months without losing effectiveness. I use the dry residue for mulching or as a ready-made fertilizer. I dilute the obtained home basic solution to the working required concentration and treat plants and soil (see part 1, EM-preparations in organic vegetable production).

Summer basic EM-extract

When processing large areas of soil, vegetable plants and orchards, the prepared winter stock is sometimes not enough. In this case it is possible to prepare a summer version of home base EM solution.

In conditions of summer temperatures (+25 ... +35°С) fermentation of green mass of young weeds and summer plant waste lasts only 5-6 days. Therefore, I carry out fermentation in containers of smaller size (tank of 20-30 liters). The more diverse the weeds, the higher the effectiveness of the resulting solution. In addition to weeds in the mixture can be added medicinal plants - chamomile, plantain, yarrow, burdock, nettle, and others.

With 3-4 days I start to open the mixture, stir it, measure with a litmus tape pH and when ripening pour into bottles. Other preparatory work is the same as with the winter EM-extract.

Having my basic solution, in the future EM-concentrate store, I practically do not buy. I leave a portion of starter (0.5-1.0 liters) from each batch. It is enough for making 1-2 winter basic solution.

Independent preparation of EM preparations
You can make the soil fertility regenerators in the form of EM-extract at home. © Cherakah farm

Cooking working solutions from the basic EM-extract

I prepare working solutions from the basic EM-extracts, but my basic solution for 1 liter of water I take 2 times more. For soaking seeds and spraying seedlings 1:2000 (1 liter / 1.0 ml), for treating adult plants 1:1000 (1 liter / 2.0 ml), for treating soil 1:10 (1 liter/200 ml) or 1:100 (1 liter / 20 ml). Usually I prepare 10 liters of working solution. When preparing working solutions, I necessarily add jam or sugar in quantities equal to the base extract. I measure the base extract with a syringe, it is dangerous to pour by eye.

Remember! High concentrations depress the plants and you can not get the expected effect.

Cooking EM compost

In the household there is always a large amount of organic waste: haulm, grass, weeds, leaves, sawdust, straw, and others. From them I prepare EM-composts or bio-composts. Unlike EM-extract, it is a concentrate of organics fermented with the help of basic or working solutions of EM preparations.

Em compost can be enriched with mineral nutrients, but not through the application of fertilizers, but using the storage plants. For example, mustard and rape waste are rich in phosphorus, comfrey - potassium, buckwheat and melon leaves - calcium, nettle in the vegetative organs accumulates nitrogen and iron. During fermentation the elements are released and at introduction into the soil EM used to form chelate forms of salts available to plants.

In dacha conditions, biocompost can be prepared in two ways:

  • aerobic method, with air access
  • aerobic, without air access.

Aerobic method of biocompost preparation

In my small farming to spend less time and effort for preparation of compost heap I use aerobic method of biocompost preparation according to the simplified scheme.

When pruning fruit trees and bushes in autumn all small branches are used as a drainage basis for future compost heap. I spread the cuttings close to the future application of biocompost into the soil. On this base I put all the waste that I take away from the bed, from the garden: haulm, leaves, etc. It is desirable to shred the used material to accelerate fermentation. I put the waste in 3-5 loose layers (necessarily loose) of 15-20 cm in height. Each layer is overlaid with 2-3 shovels of soil, moistened with water from a watering can and sprayed with a working solution of EM-extract or a basic solution of EM-concentrate. At 10 liters of warm water I add 100 or 50 ml of basic solution. I cover the prepared heap with earth from above, systematically moisten and teddy the prepared heap. Every time before moistening and tedding, I spray the heap with working solution of EM-extract.11>

By spring, I finish fermentation. Ready compost is used as fertilizer or mulch. The remains of branches, large roots I lay next to each other as a drainage base for the next summer pile of spring-summer weeds and food waste. Thus, the garden plot is always neat, no organic waste lying around anywhere. It should be noted that with this method, autumn compost is ready for use by spring, and summer compost in 7-12 days. But during rapid fermentation with air access, a lot of nitrogen is lost. This kind of fresh compost can burn the root system and even the young trunk of a fruit tree if applied. Therefore, separate the compost from the plants with a 5-7 cm layer of soil when applying it. More often, such biocompost is finely embedded in the row spacing with subsequent irrigation (water must be heated in the sun). From artesian watering with cold water is not recommended.

Independent preparation of EM preparations
Compost from household waste on EM bocashi. © Al Pasternak

Preparing anaerobic biocompost

Preparing anaerobic EM compost has several advantages over the aerobic option:

  • the maximum nutrients during fermentation are preserved,
  • the anaerobic EM culture, which is responsible for the growth and quality of the crop, develops better,
  • a large bunk is laid in one step, not needing constant tedding.

In natural conditions the compost matures usually in 2-3 years, but prepared with the use of EM preparations is ready for use in 4-6 months. That is, there is no need to occupy a small plot of land for piles of fermenting waste.

In anaerobic fermentation, oxygen is not needed. This is a basic condition. Under the bush I dig a hole 30-50 cm deep (for the flowing slurry). On three sides on top of the pit build up of planks or other material fence no higher than 1,0-1,5 m height. The length of the pit is arbitrary. On the bottom of the pit in 25-30 cm layers I lay different residues. Food, household, vegetable, shavings, sawdust, leaves, weeds, fresh organic fertilizers. I shred large components. Separate each layer with 3-5 cm layer of soil, moisten and spray with working EM solutions of the same concentration as in the preparation of aerobic compost.

The overall moisture content of the compost pile must be maintained at 60% moisture content (condition of squeezed sponge). Trample each layer carefully. When the desired height of the pile is reached, in the middle of it I stick a high stake, pointed on the bottom side. During the first 3-4 days, the contents of the bunker heats up to +40 ... +60 ° C. To the touch, if the bottom end of the stick is hot, the heating is fine. If the temperature stays too high for a long time, I cool down by watering. During the first days, negative microflora and part of the useful microflora, pest eggs are burned out. There is a purification of biomass. So once a week I moisten the pile to maintain the optimum humidity, and process with new batches of EM solutions.

The temperature inside the pile is +25 ... +30°С during the normal course of fermentation. I cover the ready bush with a layer of grass or a polyethylene film. Care of the bioburth up to maturity is usual. Mature compost has a pleasant earthy smell. Anaerobic compost can be applied semi-ripe under autumn soil preparation. The silage will mature in the soil. Mineral fertilizers cannot be applied when using biocompost.

EM-urgas from food waste

In winter, in order not to throw away food waste, you can prepare EM-urgas from it. It is the most valuable bio-fertilizer, its readiness is 4-10 days. Composition for fermentation - fresh food waste with low water content: potato peels, bread crusts, eggshells, fish bones, etc.

Independent preparation of EM preparations
In winter time, so as not to throw away food waste, it is possible to prepare EM-urgas from it. © gardeners

Process of cooking EM-urgassa

At the bottom of any (preferably plastic) container with a tight lid we set a grate on legs, under it on the bottom of the slurry tank. On the grate we put a polyethylene bag, punctured at the bottom to drain the slurry into the receiver. During the day we put solid wastes into a separate polyethylene bag or another receiver. In the evening we add them to the previous ones in the prepared container. The waste is shredded into pieces of 2-3 cm. Each layer is sprayed with EM-1 basic solution from a sprayer. The waste is stuffed tightly so that there is no air access. We wrap the film and close with a lid. Leave the bucket or container at room temperature for 4-5 days, and then take it to a colder place (not in the refrigerator or outdoors).

If fermentation goes well, the urghasa has a pleasant sour marinade smell. If not used in winter, the urghasa should be frozen and stored on an open balcony. In the spring thaw it and use it as biocompost. Although Urgasa is 5 times more effective than Baikal EM-1, it is prepared much less frequently. Which is due to the unpleasant smell in the apartment cooking process. EM-urgas is produced by companies in the form of dry powder under the name of Urgas starter. It is used for foliar feeding of indoor and greenhouse plants, baking greens, growing seedlings, when plants are damaged by hail, spring return frosts. EM-urgas is also useful because it can be used as a bioadditive for domestic animals and poultry.

Preparation EM-5 for protection against pests and diseases

The composition of EM-5 preparation differs from the working solutions of Baikal EM-2 concentrate, EM-extract and EM-urgas. The special properties due to the composition allow to reduce and in the process of constant application to remove the threshold number of pests and diseases. When using EM-5, fermentation takes place on the surface of vegetative organs of plants (leaves, stems and shoots). Unfavorable conditions for development of pathogenic microflora and inedibility of vegetative organs of plants leads to the death of fungal and bacterial diseases, sucking and biting pests.

Effectiveness of EM-5

EM-preparation is not a toxic chemical. A single application will not provide the effect. Spraying begins one week after planting of vegetable crops on permanent crops, and shrubs and trees at leaf blossoming. Repeat the treatment on healthy and unaffected plants 1 time in 7-10 days. With the onset of diseases or pests, increase the frequency of spraying to 2-3 times a week or every 3-4 days. Spraying is carried out on dew or after 16-17 PM on wet foliage and must be repeated after rain.

Independent preparation of EM preparations
Compost tea. © Mary & Jim

Preparation of EM-5

To prepare 1 liter of the preparation use the following ingredients:

  • exchlorinated water at room temperature - 600 ml,
  • cooking without berries - 100 g. If available, it is better to use 100 g EM molasses,
  • fresh 6% vinegar - 100 ml,
  • vodka or alcohol - 100 g (40 ° by strength no more),
  • base solution of Baikal EM-1 concentrate - 100 g.

In an enameled container dissolve molasses or jam with water, gradually add a solution of vinegar, vodka. Stir, pour the base solution of the EM preparation. The mixture is thoroughly stirred again and immediately pour into a liter bottle of dark color or wrap it in any black material. Pour the mixture under the neck of the bottle. If there is still space, pour water. There should be no air. Close the lid and put in a dark place for 5-7 days at a temperature of +27 ... +30 ° C for fermentation With the appearance of gas (after 2-3 days), ajar the lid, lightly shake the solution.

When the gas evolution stopped, the solution is ready. Close the lid tightly. The resulting base solution is stored in a dark cool place for 3 months, then its effectiveness decreases. Healthy solution has a pleasant smell of fermentation. The smell of decay is an indication that the solution is dead. To treat plants from the base solution, prepare workers in the same ratio as from the base solution of EM-extract.

  • Part 1. A healthy vegetable garden without chemicals
  • Part 2. Self-preparation of EM preparations
  • Part 3. Increasing natural soil fertility by EM technology