- Part 1. A healthy vegetable garden without chemicals
- Part 2. Self-preparation of EM preparations
- Part 3. Increasing natural soil fertility by EM technology
The restoration and improvement of natural soil fertility is a long process, consisting of a complex of works, one of which is to saturate the soil with humus with the "work" of EM crops. There is no need to wait for a miracle. In 1-2 years, if the soil is "sick" and neglected, there will be no big effect, although the yields of cultivated vegetable and other crops will increase. Soil recovery will be evidenced by its darkening and appearance of friability. The color will change in the actively formed humus. The soil will become more structured, less likely to float or dry out as a stony lump. Plants will be less ill.
The advantage of EM-technology is that the work can begin in any period of the warm season, provided that the soil temperature is +8 ... +10 ° C in the 10-15 cm layer (the zone of the basic root mass of vegetable crops).
In the 1950s, large amounts of chemistry bombarded agricultural fields, causing short-term increases in crop yields. The increase in effective fertility caused by the introduction of drugs (mineral fertilizers, pesticides and other substances) into the soil disrupted the natural balance of soil living organisms, which translated the natural composition of "living soil" into food for plants.
The realization gradually came that one cannot only take, forcing the soil by any means to give, returning nothing to it. Any working organism, requires replenishment of energy, which it gets with food, and such food for soil dwellers is organics. Hence the biological (organic, permaculture and other methods) system of farming was born, consolidated and received universal acceptance today.
Not all of them are acceptable for use on small garden plots. The proposed method of health improvement and increase of natural soil fertility by means of EM technology is one of the most practical and low-cost. The EM technology is convenient because one can mark out a plot and see its efficiency by comparing it. Spring is coming, the most convenient time for laying an experimental field.
If the soil has been since autumn digged and fertilizers have been applied, it is not terrible. With the onset of warm weather, as soon as the top layer shakes - we close the moisture. To reduce evaporation with a rake or a shallow cultivator we flatten the clumps, crush the soil crust. At the same time, you can make and put in the soil humus, compost. The depth of tillage is not more than 7-10 cm.
Measure the temperature of the soil in the upper 10 cm layer. When the 8-10 cm layer is heated up to +8 ... +10°C we water the ridges or area, allotted for planting of vegetable and other garden crops, with the working solution of Baikal EM-1 preparation at the rate of 2-3 l per square meter. If you introduce EM earlier, they will not work, they will continue their dormant state until warm weather, and the damp garden will be trampled. The concentration of the working solution is 1:100. If the soil is severely depleted, you can use a concentration of 1:10. In the first case, add 100 ml of basic solution to 10 l of chlorine-free warm water, and in the second case, 1.0 l of basic solution of the preparation. Stir and water the soil. Immediately mulch. Mulching every time is mandatory. This agronomic method will slow down the evaporation of moisture, the soil should be moist, which will contribute to enhanced reproduction of EM. Application of EM solutions is carried out only on moist soil.
In an early crop after a week you can sow or plant the planned for the crop rotation vegetable plants.
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In a middle crop after 10-12 days we spray the soil again with the working (1,5-2,0 l/sq.m. in concentration 1:100) solution and one week later we sow or plant vegetable crops.
If the crop is late (seedlings, peppers, eggplants, medium and late tomatoes), then 5-6 days after the first application of EM you can sow siderat, put in as a green fertilizer or between sowing siderat planted seedlings. In this case, trim the siderat to prevent it from becoming inseminated or use it as mulch with low cuttings.
The following and subsequent years in spring (if not applied in autumn) it is necessary to apply compost or other mature organic matter (mulch) at a rate of 1.0-10 kg / sq.m. depending on the level of soil organic nutrition. The organic matter is to be embedded into 5-7 cm layer of the soil and watered with EM solution of 1:250 or 40 ml of the basic preparation per 10 liters of dechlorinated water. Consumption of the working solution is 2-3 liters per square meter of area. After 2 weeks, plant or sow vegetable crops on the prepared soil. Use the spring sowing of green manure. Avoid contact of the crops root system with EM solutions, there may be burns of plant roots.
In the summer period we systematically spray the plants with the working solution 1:1000 (10 ml of base solution per bucket of water). Cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants, etc. are gradually forming crops; spraying is repeated after 7-10 days even when the plants are absolutely healthy, while spending 2-3 ml per sq.m. of the area. Potatoes can be sprayed three times during the phases of mass sprouting, before and after flowering. If infested by pests, treatment is carried out with the same frequency as for other crops. For protection against diseases and pests spraying is carried out by working solutions of EM-5.
Weeds in the inter-row weeding hoe, simultaneously closing a thin layer of soil. After weeding, we water the soil in between the rows with the working solution in concentration 1:50 - 1:100, or 200 or 100 ml of the base preparation for 10 liters of water respectively, and mulch. If the plants are overgrown, so they do not burn the high concentration of the solution, the soil can be treated with a working solution of lower concentration - 1:1000 (as for plants). At the same time, directly sprayed cut dried weeds (dried pre-watered with water) and mulch the soil.
During the summer, EM can be fertilized with organics: fresh compost can be put into the grooves between the rows, followed by fine incorporation into the soil. In order not to dry out the soil and fertilizer, after embedding the compost it is watered and mulched. Biopreparations "Planriz", "Humate" and others can be used. Mineral fertilizers can not be used, as well as toxic chemicals for plant treatment. In addition to solutions based on "Baikal EM-1" it is possible to use only bio-preparations made on the live basis of EM soil cultures.
The basis of EM technology is autumnal soil preparation. While in the spring EM can work freely for 2-3 weeks before planting, in the fall this period increases to 1-2 months. During this period
- EM decompose organic matter, restore and increase the humus reserves.
- Processing roots, loosen the soil.
- Acumulate in the soil available to plants macro-and micronutrients in the form of chelated forms of salts.
- Inhibiting the work of pathogenic microflora, healthier the soil. In addition, the next wave of weeds sprouts in the soil. Once exposed to frost, the germinated germs die, clearing the soil in the top layer of excessive weed vegetation. Gradually the number of weeds decreases, and under a 5-10 cm layer of mulch they almost disappear. But, we must understand and remember that all changes take time. And not one year.
After harvesting the weeds sprout by watering and spraying the soil with a working solution of Baikal EM-1 or EM-extract 1:100 - 1:250 (10 l water/100 or 40 ml of EM-basic). The working solution consumption is 1 liter/sq. m of the plot area. The last treatment is performed 2-3 weeks before the onset of permanent frosts. It is desirable to cover the plot with a film after the treatment, which will speed up the appearance of sprouts of hard-to-grasp seeds. Sprouted weeds fall under frost and die.
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If you have organic biofertilizer (humus, biocompost), spread it on the surface of the plot or bed (2-10 kg / sq.m.) and embed it with hoe or hand hoe into the upper 5-7 cm layer of soil. You can use shredded green residues from cultivated crops. Sprinkle EM solution on top at the rate of 2-3 liters per 1 sq.m. of working solution with a concentration of 1:100 - 1:250. Use base solutions of EM-Baikal, EM-extract, EM-urgas to prepare working solutions.
In subsequent years, continually apply organic matter in the fall. And you can gradually reduce the rate of application to 2-5 kg / sq.m. area. Organic fertilizers, other shredded biowaste can be embedded in the soil or literally cover 3-5 cm layer of soil. If the soil is dry, be sure to irrigate and on wet soil treat with working solution of EM at the rate of 1:100 or 100 ml of basic solution per 10 liters of water.
After soil treatment, sow the area with any, suitable for the future crop, nettle in a week. If you will use this method, after mowing the green manure, again treat the soil with the working solution of EM and mulch the soil. It is possible to leave the mowed ciderat on the soil surface, but still treat it with working solution, replenishing the soil with EM and humus green fertilizer.
You can lay a winter bed, pouring each layer with working solution concentration 1:100 or 1:250, which is 100 and 40 ml of base solution for 10 liters of water. The last layer of soil be sure to moisten and already on a wet layer, pour the EM solution 1:100 and leave the bed until spring.
Treatment of soil with working solutions of EM preparations (EM-Baikal, extract, Urgas) for 3 - 4 years, noticeably improve the soil, increase humus content, and thus, soil fertility, free from the abundance of evil weeds. Application of only these preparations, only in such concentrations and only in the listed periods is not a dogma. With careful observation, you will find your optimal approach to biological farming. This includes mixed plantings of vegetable and vegetable plants with compatible floral and medicinal crops. The use of decoctions and infusions of herbs, especially medicinal herbs (thyme, yarrow, mint, nasturtium, dandelion, etc.).
Other biological preparations for restoration of soil fertility can be successfully used: baksib, radiance-2, radiance-3, rhizoplan, batsilon. Numerous biological preparations against fungal and bacterial diseases and pests, will help to improve plants (raise their immunity) and destroy the epiphytotic damage of crops from diseases (Trichodermin, phytosporin-M, bactophyt, alirin and others). ) and pests (Actophyte, Verticillin, Nemabakt, Bitoxybacillin, etc.).
In biological farming use all the waste from the household, return them to the soil, saturate it with organics and it will thank you with crops of biologically pure products of enviable quality.
- Part 1. A healthy garden without chemicals
- Part 2. Self-preparation of EM preparations
- Part 3. Increasing natural soil fertility by EM technology
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