Eggplants In The Greenhouse - Growing Rules And Best Varieties
Eggplants, tall upright plants with broad heart-shaped leaves of dark green color and large bright fruits, create a special mood in the garden. And in the kitchen they are a popular product for a wide variety of dishes: eggplants are fried, stewed and canned. Of course, it is not an easy task to grow a decent crop in the middle zone and to the north. But with the observance of agrotechnical rules of cultivation it is quite accessible even to the beginner gardener. Especially if you grow eggplants in the greenhouse. About the agrotechnics of greenhouse eggplants we will tell in the article.
Preparing the greenhouse for growing eggplant in the fall
It will be just fine (though not necessary) if you prepare the greenhouse beds for growing eggplant since the fall. To do this you need:
remove from seedbeds all post-harvest residues and take out beyond the greenhouse (burn, dig, put to rot),
abundant watering to provoke the emergence of weeds.
And then, on the state of the greenhouse soil, you can do differently:
if the soil is sufficiently fertile, on thread weeds sprouts to disinfect the soil, such as a solution of copper vitriol, dig over the bayonet shovel and leave until spring.
If the soil is poor, then first bring the necessary organic and mineral fertilizers: 1 sq. m area by 0.5 buckets of any organic (humus, biohumus), sprinkle (if necessary) soil dolomite flour (50 g / sq. m), add mineral fertilizers (60 g / sq. m nitrofoska is convenient). Then treat the soil to disinfect it with a solution of copper sulfate (3-4% solution is prepared in hot water). After a few days, the soil is re-cultivated to the bayonet of the spade and left until spring.
Spring preparation of soil in the greenhouse for planting eggplant
If fall fertilizers do not make and do not prepare the soil for planting eggplant, the spring 20-25 days before planting seedlings in the ground make humus and fertilizers, calculated per 1 sq. m of area: 4-5 kg of organic matter, 50-60 g nitrophoska, magnesium sulfate 15-20 g (can be replaced with dolomite flour, 50 g).
Fertilizer is applied on a flat surface and the soil is recultivated to a depth of 20 cm. Then the soil is watered. Prepared area covered with film and transplanted seedlings in 3 weeks.
Attention! Spring preparation of soil in the greenhouse for planting seedlings begin when the shoots of eggplant seedlings appears first true leaf.
How to grow eggplant seedlings at home, see article Growing eggplant seedlings.
Transplanting eggplant seedlings in the greenhouse
The eggplant has very delicate roots. They are easily damaged during transplanting, which greatly prolongs the rooting period of the plants. The roots are least damaged when growing seedlings in seedling cassettes. If possible, it is more practical to plant seedlings grown in peat-mulch or peat pots without removing the plants.
Some gardeners advise to carefully cut along the sides of the pot. You can remove the bottom, so the root will grow freely deep and not bend while the bottom of the peat pot rots in the soil.
The eggplant is a heat-loving plant whose root system does not tolerate low temperatures. So before planting the plants the soil in the greenhouse should warm up to +15 ... +16°C, and the air to +18 ... +19°C, not lower.
Planning is best done in the morning or in cloudy weather. If conditions are different, it is necessary to shade planted plants, especially in the first 3-4 days after planting.
The soil before planting (for 2-3 days) should be leveled, watered to a moist (not wet) state. Watering is necessary, as the roots of eggplant are very delicate and dry soil can damage them.
Branches of eggplant, even low-growing, quite voluminous, sprawling, so planting is carried out in one row (with a small area allocated to culture), leaving a distance of 40-45 cm between bushes. If the area allows, you can densify planting by placing bushes in 2 rows in staggered order with a distance of 50-60 cm between the rows and 35-40-45 cm in a row (depending on the type of bush).
Selecting a planting scheme, prepare a planting hole of 12-18 cm deep. A handful of wood ash is introduced into the hole, and it is mixed with the soil. If the soil is not fertilized, you can add fertilizer to the hole before planting. Pour up to 1.0-1.5 liters of warm water (better - a light solution of manganese) into the hole.
The seedlings are planted together with the soil clod. Bare roots will definitely be damaged and it will take 10-15 days to take rooting of such plants, which will subsequently affect the timing of the early harvest. The plant in the hole is gently kneaded (without pressure), slightly watered again from the top. Planting mulch a shallow dry humus, peat, sawdust 2-3 years of age or other mulching material.
Attention! On the planting shows the appearance of a new leaf on the planting bush.
Best Eggplant Varieties for Greenhouse
Baclanth "Black Beauty" - medium maturing, bush compact. Does not require high temperatures for growth and development. Characterized by the location of the fruit in the lower part of the bush weighing 200-250 grams. Matures to technical ripeness in the absence of light 110-115 days. Fruits are oblong-cylindrical in shape, rind color ranging from dark purple to glossy black. The flesh is soft, medium-dense with a pleasant taste, light green in color. Resistant to disease. Used for cooking all kinds of dishes and canning.
Baclaus "Sailor" - for lovers of exotic. Sort of medium early. High (up to 1 m). The yield is average (up to 8 kg / sq. m). Fruits are typical for eggplants, weighing up to 500 g. The main color of the skin is light or dark lilac with white stripes. The flesh is tender, the aftertaste is pleasant, without bitterness. Can be eaten raw as well. Universal use.
Baclaus "Balagur" - variety of Russian selection. It is interesting in the arrangement of the fruits. Each inflorescence bears a bunch of 3-7 small fruits (50-130 g). Fructification is very early, not more than 6-7 kg per square meter. The first fruits in technical ripeness are removed in 80-85 days. The color of the skin of fruits lilac, saturated, with the transition to a light lilac. The shape is more often drop-shaped, but may be oblong oval. The flavor of flesh pleasant, very delicate. Resistant to tobacco mosaic and rot.
The best eggplant hybrids for greenhouse
Aggplant "Marzipan" F1 - - early, bush compact. The hybrid is very productive. The fruits are rounded, bright purple. The flesh is very soft, has a pleasant sweetish-fresh taste, without bitterness. Used for cooking fresh fruits and canning.
Baclaus "Bagheera" F1 - early, the bush is compact, low-growing. High-yielding hybrid. Forms up to 12 kg of fruit per square meter. Soon-born, the fruits of technical ripeness ready for 100-110 days. Weight of the fruit of 250 to 350 g, oval-long, purple color, dark, greenish-white flesh, without bitterness. Practically does not get sick. Well tolerates transportation and storage. "Bagheera" can be grown in small containers on windowsills and stands.
Baclaus "Bull's Heart" F1 - mediately (technical ripeness of fruits comes to 110 days). The fruits are very large. Weight of the fruit is more than 500 g, color purple skin, glossy. The flesh is white, dense, no bitterness. Fruits are stored up to 2 weeks. Used for cooking fresh fruits and eggplant caviar.
Baclain "Fabina" F1 -early, the bush is semi-spreading low-growing. Resistant to verticillosis and other diseases, little damaged by spider mites. Fruits are elongated dark purple, with a glossy sheen, weighing 120-150 g, have a pronounced mushroom taste. Fruits have a long shelf life without loss of appearance and quality. Used for various dishes of fresh fruit and for souring.
Baclaus "Bibo" F1- for lovers of exoticism. Hybrid of Dutch selection. According to the terms of maturity refers to medium to early to medium. Highly grown (1m or more). High yielding. The skin of the fruit is white, shape - typical of eggplant. The flesh without bitterness, white, soft consistency, delicacy in taste, with a pleasant aftertaste. Resistant to pests, Fusarium and viruses.
Eggplant "Purple Wonder"F1 - hybrid little susceptible to the duration of daylight all season of growth. Early maturing, low-growing. Has a complex resistance to diseases and pests. The yield is average. Fruits weigh up to 200 g, elongated spindle-like, dark purple skin, shiny. The flesh of medium density, without bitterness. Used for any kind of processing, including pickling.
Dear reader! You are offered the article, based on own experience of growing eggplants in the protected ground. Complement it with your experience in the comments, we will be happy to communicate.