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Cerapadus And Padocerus - Cherry And Bird Cherry Hybrids

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Cerapadus never existed in nature. These plants appeared thanks to I.V. Michurin, who used to create hybrids the steppe cherry (variety Ideal) (Prunus fruticosa) and Japanese cherry Maack(Prunus maackii). Only she gave positive results in the cross-pollination of the two plant species. Cross-pollination with common bird cherry had no positive results. In cross-pollination, bird cherry pollen was applied to cherry pistil stigma and, conversely, cherry pollen was applied to cherry pistil. The positive result of re-pollination contributed to the production of a new stone fruit species, which was named cerapadus in the first case, when the cherry tree was the mother plant. The name of this new stone fruit tree species was formed by combining the first syllables of Latin cherry (Cerasus) and bird cherry (Padus), i.e. a cherry - cherry-plum hybrid or cerapadus was formed. In the case where the mother plant is Maaca cherry, the plants were called cherry-cherry, or Padocerus.

Cerapadus and Padocerus - cherry and bird cherry hybrids
Cherry and cherry-cherry hybrid Cerapadus
. © Osa

History of Cerapadus and Padocerus

Not immediately did Cerapadus and Padocerus join the fruit crop family. The first hybrids only partly combined maternal and paternal properties: acquired a strong root system, high frost resistance, increased resistance to coccomicosis, gum disease, a number of other diseases, the form of inflorescence (from 1-2 flowered to brush with 4-6 fruits).

But the fruit of cerapadus #1 was unpleasant in taste qualities. Their taste was sometimes stinky-bitter or bitter almond with a smell of hydrocyanic acid. Cerasapadus fruits formed many, but small. New variety hybrids obtained good rooting ability of cuttings during vegetative propagation. In the selection work they became used as an excellent rootstock for cherry, sweet cherry and plum trees.

Peculiarities of cerapadus and padocerus

The persistent continuation of selection work contributed to obtaining the first hybrid variety Cerapadus sweet (a hybrid with cherry variety Ideal). The new varietal hybrid passed on the maternal qualities of fruits: sweet sugary fruits, ornamental appearance - black, shiny large. A powerful root system with high resistance to winter frosts was inherited from Maak cherry/cherry.

Cerapadus became an excellent rootstock for heat-loving cherries and sweet cherry. The crop became highly frost-resistant and was promoted to colder regions outside of the average Russian strip. The external characteristics of the species also changed: crowns of cerasapadus became dense due to good foliage, round, tightly compressed form.

Cultivars (varieties) created on the basis of first hybrid cerasapadus, have high winter hardiness, resistance to diseases (especially widespread among cherries to coccomicosis), large fruit size, high yield. Later, cherry-cherry varieties forming a brush-like inflorescence rather than 1-2 fruits were obtained. All cultivars and hybrids of Cerapadus and Padocerus in the State Register are included in the section "Cherries".

Cerapadus hybrid varieties

Cerapadus "Novella" - form tree-like to 3 m high, the root system is powerful. A mid-early variety, self-fruitful (does not require pollinators), resistant to Cocciomycosis, highly winter-hardy. Virtually no damage to endure severe frosts. Berries are very large, black, shiny. Recommended for cultivation in the Tambov, Orel, Lipetsk and Kursk regions, in the Central Black Earth region. It also has high yields in Belgorod and Voronezh regions.

Cerapadus "Rusinka" - more often grown in bush form, the tree is not more than 2 m high. Late, self-fertile, frost-resistant, resistant to disease. The fruits are not large, sour-sweet, black. Jam with an unusual attractive flavor. The variety is recommended for cultivation for regions: Vladimir, Moscow, Ivanovo, Bryansk, Kaluga, Ryazan, Smolensk, Tula.

Cerapadus "Memory of Levandowski " is a bush cherry variety. Self-fertile, needs pollinators, which can be the following varieties: Turgenevka, Subbotinskaya, Ashinskaya, Lyubskaya. The winter hardiness of the new variety is high, resistant to coccomycosis. Yield is average. Fruits are sour-sweet. Plantings are promoted to the north of the middle belt of Russia.

Cerapadus and Padocerus - cherry and bird cherry hybrids
Image from Michurin I.V.'s works on hybridization of species

Hybrid varieties of Padocerus

Padocerus are no less interesting, whose fruits are superior in taste qualities to cerapadus.

Padotserus-M is a basic hybrid that gave rise to the Almaz cherry variety, from which a whole galaxy of varieties descended: Korona, Zhar-Ptica, Kharitonovskaya, Aksamit. Among them, especially stands out Kharitonovskaya variety - a tree up to 2-3 m high, needs pollinators. The best pollinators are the Zhukovskaya and Vladimirskaya varieties. A distinctive feature of the Kharitonovskaya variety are very large fruits, dark red in color with orange flesh. Variety high yielding, resistant to coccomycosis and kametedetutsiyu. Recommended for cultivation in the same areas as the variety Cerasapadus novella.

Padocerus "Fire-bird" is a sort of medium-sized fruits of dark coral color. The taste of the fruit is sweet with cherry tartness. Can be grown as a bush or a tree up to 2.5 m tall. Forms a good crop every year, but resistance to frost is medium. It is better to grow in the southern regions.

Padocerus variety " Corona" features a group arrangement of fruits with a pleasant taste, giving a slight sourness. Usually grown in bush form. Forms regularly good yields. It has a complex resistance to diseases.

Padocerus variety " Doldoward" has a strong root system, a round crown of moderate density. Of all the varieties, the fruits of Long-awaited are the most similar in taste to cherries. Fruits are dark cherry-colored with dark red, tender, juicy flesh and dense skin. Characterized by abundant annual fruiting. It differs from other varieties by its good separability of a rather large pit from the pulp.

Growing Cerapadus and Padocerus

Cerapadus and Padocerus are not yet common in gardens as fruit crops. Not all gardeners like the taste of bird cherry in the flesh of the fruit. More often they are used as rootstocks for cherries, cherries, plums.

Sapling planting

Cerapadus seedlings should be bought only in specialized places of sale or directly in the nursery. Then you can be sure that you were sold the desired fruit crop, not a fake.

The cerapadus can be planted in early autumn or spring in April. Seedlings are sufficiently frost-resistant and, if planted in autumn, will have time to take root before the cold weather arrives.

Any soil of neutral reaction with medium fertility can be used for planting cerapadus and padocerus. The site should be sufficiently light, without shade and draughts.

Planting pits for spring planting are prepared from autumn, and for spring planting - 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings. In order to get a high annual yield, it is necessary to plant 2-3 seedlings, even if the variety is self-fertile. Sometimes, depending on weather conditions or the properties of the variety, partial self-fertility begins to prevail. As a result, there are a lot of hollow flowers when flowering, and the yield is markedly reduced. The first 2 years of growth of cerapadus and padocerus seedlings may be retarded, but then the plant makes up for lost time with vigorous growth and formation of root shoots that can extend 2-3 meters away from the main plant.

Standard planting pits are prepared in advance, which are adjusted to the volume of the seedling root system before planting the culture. As a rule, Cerapadus and Padocerus seedlings have a strong root system. The distance between plants in a row leaves 2,5-3,0 meters and in between rows - up to 3,0-3,5 m.

Before planting, cerapadus seedlings are lowered into clean water or rooting solution for several hours. Prepare the soil mixture: 2 buckets of humus are mixed with 1 bucket of soil, add 100 g of potassium and phosphorus fertilizer or (easier) 1 cup of nitrofoska. Mix well and pour into the hole in the shape of a bump. On the bump spread the root system of the seedling, cover up to half of the hole with soil, slightly compact it, pour a bucket of warm (heated) water. After absorption, the hole is closed completely, add 2-3 more buckets of heated water, and after its absorption, mulch generously with fine mulch, you can peat, sawdust (not coniferous), shavings, etc.

Citadel seedlings can be grown as a separate crop, used as a high-quality rootstock or skeletonizer for several grafting on one rootstock.

Cerapadus and Padocerus - cherry and bird cherry hybrids
Matured fruits of Cerapadus

Cerapadus and Padocerus care

Cerapadus, like cherry, does not require care. The agronomic technique consists of destroying weeds in the bedding circles. If the plant develops normally, fertilization is carried out in the spring period in 2-3 years or according to the condition of the plant. Root shoots should be systematically eliminated. Interestingly, cerapadus and apple trees are not competitors for feeding area. On the contrary, the neighborhood of cerapadus protects apple trees from pests, and root excretions of root shoots promote healthier growth and better development.

Cerapadus unpretentious crop needs sanitary and formative pruning. Formative pruning includes formation of trunk and crown, and sanitary pruning - pruning dry, sick curves and old branches, thickening the crown or the above-ground part of the shrub (with a shrub form). The bough of a tree is formed 50-60 cm in height, and the crown is 2 - 3-tiered, leaving 3-4 side shoots (scaffold branches of the first order) in each tier. During vegetation period, the crown and soil under the crown are treated against pests and diseases with Planriz, Alirin-B, Boverin, Aktofit, etc., if necessary. Additional treatments against fungal diseases cerapadus and padocerus do not need.

The crop has a short vegetation period, so the harvest has time to ripen before the onset of colds. Fruits are tastier in processed form, some varieties have a good attractive taste even when eaten fresh (Meet, Long-awaited, Kharitonovskaya, Novella).

Cerapadus and Padocerus are fast growing and used as a hedge in dacha plots. During flowering the bushes attract bees and bumblebees and serve as an attractive decoration in early spring.