Pollinated and parthenocarpic cucumbers are not competitors; they complement each other. Although bee-pollinated cucumbers require pollination to produce greens, bee-pollinated cucumbers have several advantages. Firstly, greenlings of bee-pollinated hybrids are more useful because they have a higher content of biologically active substances, vitamins and carbohydrates due to the seeds being formed. Secondly, it is bee-pollinated cucumber hybrids provide raw material of the highest quality for traditional pickling to produce the classic Russian salted cucumber which has gained popularity. Moreover, unique samples combining the taste of ancient varieties with complex resistance to diseases, cold resistance, tolerance to shade, superbunchiness and many other valuable features are created. Contemporary bee-pollinated summer hybrids of "Manul" farm selection are female-bearing (such hybrids are the most productive); 10-15% of pollinators are used for their qualitative pollination. For this purpose, seed-breeding firm "Manul" created special hybrids-pollinators: white lumpy F1 Nectar and black lumpy F1 Bumblebee, characterized by a long period of flowering of male flowers. Cucumber hybrids F1 Nectar and F1 Bumblebee not only provide high-quality pollination of plants with a large number of female flowers, but also produce a crop of cucumbers with high salt quality. Pollinator hybrids F1 Nectar and F1 Bumblebee have contributed to an increase in bee-pollinated cucumber yield and again increased interest in them.
Cucumber bee-pollinated cucumbers can be divided into 3 groups on a set of biological and economic traits.
Cucumber bee-pollinated summer hybrids with bunch arrangement of ovaries in the knots: F1 Azbuka, F1 Loyal friends, F1 Acorn, F1 Captain, F1 Compass, F1 Teremok, F1 Saltan
In this group bee-pollinated bunch cucumbers of female type of flowering with high pickling qualities are presented. The plants are stout, branching is from weak (F1 Faithful Friends) to active (F1 Saltan, a hybrid with partial parthenocarpy manifestation).
Summer bee-pollinated bunch hybrids differ from others by the abundance of ovaries and their large size, which allows to collect non-pollinated ovaries as mini peelings for canning in small jars. Each node produces 2-3 to 6-8-12 ovaries. Greens are 8-12 cm long, have a large tubercle, black or white pubescence, the frequency of tubercles is medium ("Russian type of pubescence"). F1 Captain and F1 Acorn have a new valuable trait - delayed ripening of fruits, preventing their outgrowth at rare pickings. This trait is important for canning industry areas, as well as for gardeners who come to garden plots only on weekends. These are high-tech hybrids designed for classic pickling (standard greens) and canning (standard and pickle-sized greens).
A bee-pollinated early maturing bunch rootstock hybrid of female type flowering for open and protected ground. Fruits on day 39-42 from sprouts. Branching is medium or below average. The nodes are formed from 2-4 to 6-10 ovaries. Seedlings knobby (the frequency of tubercles average), black-spiky, oval-cylindrical shape, length of 8-11 cm, diameter of 3.0-3.5 cm, weighing 90-115 g. Pickle and taste qualities are very high. Created for barrel pickling, as well as for canning mini cucumbers in jars. Resistant to olive spot disease, common cucumber mosaic virus, powdery mildew, tolerant to false powdery mildew. The density of planting in the open field 3-5 plants/m2, in greenhouses 2,5-3 plants/m2.
F1 Faithful Friends
Popular, very early maturing bee-pollinating bunch-rotting hybrid of female flowering type for open field, tunnels, spring greenhouses. Fruiting comes in 37-39th day from sprouts. The knots are formed from 2-3 to 5-8 or more ovaries. Cold-resistant. Branching is weak, which greatly simplifies the care of plants. Characterized by abundant fruiting in any conditions of cultivation. Green vegetables knobby, black-branched, oval-cylindrical shape, length 8-10 cm. Pickle and taste qualities are very high. Cold-resistant, resistant to olive spot disease, cucumber mosaic virus, tolerant to powdery mildew and false powdery mildew.
Yielding bee-pollinated bunch-root hybrid for open and protected ground. Named for its dense, crispy greens with high pickling qualities. Plants female type of flowering, branching is limited (side shoots - short, determinate type). Nodes form 2-3 to 10-12 ovaries. F1 Acorn - hybrid with stunted growth of fruits, which because of this weakly do not outgrow with infrequent collections. Created for barrel pickling, as well as for canning mini cucumbers in jars. The greens are large tuberous, white-spiky, intensely green, 8-11 cm long; the frequency of tubercles is medium. Tolerant to olive spot disease, cucumber common mosaic virus, tolerant to powdery mildew, false powdery mildew.
High-yielding bee-pollinated bunch rootstock hybrid for open and protected ground. Plants female type flowering, branching medium or below average. Green vegetables lumpy, black-shelled, 8-12 cm long, very high pickle and taste. The nodes form from 3-4 to 6-9 ovaries. Made for barrel pickling as well as for canning mini cucumbers in jars. It is resistant to olive spot disease, common cucumber mosaic virus, powdery mildew, tolerant to false powdery mildew.
Bee-pollinated summer hybrids with simultaneous ripening of large number of greens on the plant: F1 Farmer, F1 Lord, F1 Maisky
These are classic bee-pollinated hybrids for open and protected ground. Thanks to the powerful root system, cold-resistance, good regrowth of lateral shoots, they bear fruit actively until late autumn. Green vegetables have high salted and gustatory qualities. These hybrids are hybrids of female or mainly female flowering type, so 10-15% pollinator is added. Designed for the open ground, spring greenhouses, tunnels. Branching is medium to above average. The knots are formed on 1-2 ovaries. Green vegetables are large-shelled, white-spiky, 10-12 cm long, dense, crispy; pickling and canning qualities are very high. Intensive plant growth, vigorous root system, active regrowth of lateral shoots combined with cold-resistance and complex resistance to diseases result in prolonged and friendly carnation until fall frosts. The hybrid is resistant to powdery mildew, olive spot disease, ordinary cucumber mosaic virus, is tolerant to false powdery mildew. Widely grown in spring-summer rotation in open and protected ground. Branching is medium to above average. Characteristic feature of the hybrid is intensive growth of the main shoot and the rapid emergence of lateral shoots, with the growth of which comes the peak of the mass prolonged fructification. Cold hardiness and resistance of plants to phytosanitary diseases contribute to high yield in late August - September - in uncomfortable conditions for many varieties. The knots are formed on 1-2 ovaries. Green grains of beautiful bright green color, knobby white spiky large, 10-12 cm long; pickling, canning and eating qualities are very high. Hybrid is resistant to powdery mildew, olive spot disease, common cucumber mosaic virus, tolerant to false powdery mildew.
Please also read this. How do I remove climbing plants from my facade?
The famous tasty shade-tolerant salad hybrids of the winter-spring ecotype variety Relay: F1 Relay, F1 Olympics, F1 Manul, F1 Marathon, F1 Ladoga, F1 Northern Lights.
These cucumbers with an inimitable taste and flavor, unparalleled in the world. Hybrids are the classic standard of Russian salad cucumbers. The greens are 15-22 cm long, have a coarse tuberose surface, glossy or semi-matte, the frequency of tubercles is medium, the skin is thin (salad type), the flesh is crisp and fragrant. Plants strong-growing, powerful, shade-tolerant, with strong branching, in summer actively bearing fruit both in greenhouses and in the open air. Hybrids are sown with 10% pollinators (F1 Nectar, F1 Bumblebee) for quality pollination. In recent years, F1 Relay, F1 Olympics, F1 Manul have become very popular among gardeners and farmers.
Although Estafeta hybrids may have a rather large number of male flowers at the beginning of flowering, they may not be sufficient to ensure long-term pollination. Male flowers are produced mainly on the main stem, and by the time the middle and upper tier side shoots are in full bloom, the plants become "female". If there was cool weather during the cultivation of seedlings or after their planting, the expression of the female sex in the plants is intensified. Therefore it is desirable to use a pollinator for such hybrids.
F1 Relay Race
Yielding mid-maturing bee-pollinated hybrid with predominantly female flowering type. Branching in summer is strong. Green vegetables are 15-20 cm long, knobby, white spiky, very tasty. Has a high tolerance for shade, high plasticity to environmental factors. The hybrid is resistant to common cucumber mosaic virus, relatively - to root rot.
Yielding, high-yielding mid-maturing hybrid of intense type of development with a strong branching. The greens are lumpy, white-spiky, with inimitable taste and aroma, 16-19 cm long; medium pubescence, large lumps. F1 Olympiada has high ecological plasticity, resistance to common cucumber mosaic virus, tolerance to root rot
Yielding mid-maturing bee-pollinated hybrid mainly female type flowering. Characterized by intensive growth, with high productivity potential. Green shoots lumpy white spiky, 16-18 cm long, bright green color with longitudinal light bands, inimitable taste and aroma. The tubercles are large, the frequency of tubercles is medium. Branching is medium to strong. Hybrid with a wide optimal temperature range, resistant to olive spot disease and cucumber mosaic virus.
F1 Northern Lights
Yielding bee-pollinated hybrid with very tasty greens. The plants are stout, with good branching. Green greens knobby white spiky, 16-19 cm long. The tubercles are large, the frequency of tubercles is rare. Fruits are bright green in color with light longitudinal strips. Hybrid with a wide optimal temperature range, resistant to olive spot disease, cucumber mosaic virus.
Cucumber plants can form 3 types of flowers: female flowers, male flowers, hermaphroditic flowers.
Female flowers are always with an ovary (a small cucumber), so they can be distinguished from male flowers even before flowering. In parthenocarpic forms, the ovary grows into a greenling without pollination (i.e., no bees or other insects or artificial pollination are needed to produce a crop). In bee-pollinated cucumbers, pollination of female flowers by pollen from male flowers is necessary for the growth of ovaries (and hence fruit formation). The number of female flowers in a node may be 1, 2 (in long-fruited hybrids) or more - up to 10-12 (in bunch cucumbers).
Male flowers - without ovary, externally are yellow flowers on thin pedicels. The biological purpose of male flowers is to pollinate the female flowers (both bee-pollinated and parthenocarpic genotypes) to produce seeds. In parthenocarpic forms the greens are formed without pollination, but they do not contain seeds; to obtain seeds in parthenocarpic fruits the female flowers must be pollinated.
Male flowers are formed in the nodes of the main stem and lateral shoots, usually in bunches - several pieces.
Male flower pollen is sticky, heavy, not sprinkled, i.e., cucumber does not pollinate by wind but only by insects.
Please also read this. Harvesting tips for the freshest vegetables
Cucumber flower structure
Male flowers consist of calyx, corolla petals, stamens. Stamens are five, each ending in a pollen sack - anther, which contains pollen grains (pollen).
In female flowers instead of stamens there is a pistil, consisting of stigma, column and ovary. The ovary is lower, usually three-celled, with several rows of ovules in each socket.
Pollination of cucumbers
Cucumber pollen germinates on the stigma of the female flower immediately, and as pollen tubes penetrates through the pistil column into the ovules containing eggs. Bee-pollinated cucumbers have active ovary growth after oviposition. Parthenocarpic cucumbers produce ovaries without pollination.
Male and female cucumber flowers open early in the morning with sunrise in good weather. If the day before was cool (about +15 ... +17°C) and overcast, flowers open poorly and may be half-open.
In male flowers pollen ripens 1-2 days before they open. Pollen unfolds on the day of flowering, but if the air temperature is below +16 ... +17°C, the anthers may unfold only the next day (and, consequently, on the day of flower opening, pollination will not occur).
The pollen viability is at its greatest from the moment of flower opening until 11-12 hours of the day, then it reduces, and may be completely lost by the next morning. Optimal air temperature for pollen +20 ... +30°C. At low (+14 ... +16°C) and high (above +40°C) temperatures, pollen viability may be considerably reduced.
Male flowers last for 1-2 days, after which they fade
Female flowers flower for an average of 2 days. If they are not pollinated, they retain their fresh appearance for several days, and the color of the flowers becomes less vivid. The pollination process involves mostly freshly opened female and male flowers. They can be distinguished from other flowers that have blossomed a day or more earlier by the bright yellow color of the corolla petals. Some (small) amount of fruit is also produced when the female flowers are pollinated the day after they open.
How to get a large crop of bee-pollinated cucumbers
If a bee-pollinated hybrid is a female type of flowering (i.e. plants have only female flowers), or mainly female type of flowering (plants mostly have female flowers, few male flowers), to get a crop it is necessary to plant 10-15% of pollinators (9-10 plants of the main hybrid have one pollinator plant). Pollinators are male varieties or hybrids that form a large number of male flowers on the main stem and side shoots.
Pollination in cucumber occurs with the help of insects: bees, bumblebees, flies, and ants. In order to attract pollinating insects into small greenhouses, open the windows and doors of the greenhouse during the day (since early morning). To attract insect pollinators in greenhouses, plants during flowering are sprinkled on average 1-2 times a week with an aqueous solution of honey or sugar (1 teaspoon per liter of water). A few drops of aromatic oils can be added to the solution. Sometimes, honeydew plants with a strong sweet flavor are sown in the greenhouse: alyssum, surepka. In the open ground as a rule there is enough of insect pollinators.
Detailed information about the novelties and the range of vegetable seeds produced by Agrofirm "Manul", and peculiarities of agricultural technology you can find at the site: Seeds of vegetable crops
Please also read this. Babiana is an unpretentious indoor bulbous exot