Golden autumn... The roses in the palisades are blushing. Melodies of cicadas ring in the night. And the harvest from the garden smells of honey... Autumn is not just about harvesting honey apples and pears and making juices and jams, it is also about preparing for next year. And on how carefully, correctly and on time it will be carried out, depends on the future harvest. Very often a carelessly prepared garden does not survive the winter well, which adds to the work in the spring during the planting season. Lack of time for spring work leads to increased infestation of the garden with diseases and pests, and the result is a poor quality harvest, and even flavored with a large number of poisonous treatments. Thus, autumn is the head of the whole year.
- Organization of autumn harvesting work in the garden
- Measures to protect fruit from pests
Organization of autumn harvesting work in the garden
All autumn work should begin during harvesting and end with the first frosts.
Harvest. Under the trees remove the fallen fruits and send them to the cattle and birds for feeding. Healthy fruit fallen fruits should be composted, sick plants should be buried far away from the cottage or burnt. Healthy leaves can be used under the digging, spreading them in a carpet over the vegetable garden beds and other areas. Sick ones - remove and burn. You can make a special pit, where to dump sick leaves and other plant waste and treat them layer by layer with preparations for various diseases. The resulting humus (at least 3-4 years old) can be used as organics for lawns in recreation corners.
Clean bark with scrapers, clean up wounds and hollows. Before carrying out this work, place old cloth or film under the crown to prevent pests from overwintering in the crown from getting to the ground. Disinfect wounds and treat them with a garden varnish. Trim back.
Trimming in cold regions is best postponed until spring. This is due to the possibility of the bark drying out and freezing around the cut. In regions with short-lived low temperatures, sanitary pruning is carried out from autumn after the leaves have fallen completely, removing all crooked, old withered branches, diseased branches. Do not forget to carry out rejuvenation pruning on old trees after 3-5 years. The outward manifestation of the need for such pruning is a fading of the growth and development of the top of the tree. All waste after pruning should be removed and burned.
After the completion of preliminary work to prepare the garden for wintering, proceed to work on protection against pests and diseases.
Measures to protect fruit trees from pests
Whitewashing of fruit trees
Whitewashing of boles and scaffold branches is a mandatory measure to protect fruit trees from pests and diseases. Compositions for whitewashing can be different and consist of one freshly slaked lime or a more complex mixture that will contribute to destruction of wintering pests, mycelium and spores of fungal and bacterial diseases, will save from sun scalds and frost attack.
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Whitewashing with pure freshly slaked lime is ineffective. It is quickly washed off by rain and only temporary protection from frost-bite and sun-scalds.
Acrylic, water-emulsion and water-dispersion paints special for garden trees have recently been on sale. They have good protective properties and do not wash off from the treated tree surfaces for a long time. They contain antiseptic. If a batch of paints has a liquid composition, PVA or garden glue can be added to them, but not joinery glue. Carpentry glue clogs the treated surface with a solid film, as a result of which the wood cannot breathe. If the consistency of the finished composition is dense, glue is not needed.
Bearing in mind the cost of ready-made whitewashing means, many gardeners prefer to prepare their own mixtures. The basis of all mixtures is freshly slaked lime and clay in a ratio of 2:1. For young seedlings, chalk is used so as not to burn the young bark. PVA glue, garden glue or special adhesives (can be bought) and additives for destroying wintering forms of pests and diseases are added to the mix.
Poisonous additives for pests are BI-58, copper sulfate, dichlorophos, DNOC and others. To destroy not only pests in the form of adults, larvae, but also fungal and bacterial infection, fungicides "Hom" (30-40 g/bucket) or "Oxyhom" (20 g/bucket), fufanon are added. Freshly slaked lime is needed to burn off pest eggs, lichens and mosses.
Setting trap belts
Trap belts are usually prepared from a straw harness. Treat it with any poisonous solution or powder preparation and attach it to the lower part of the bole and skeletal branches with the help of anti-horticultural glue. The garden glue is used to make a glue path and secure the trap belt. The glue does not harden for a long time, and all crawling pests get stuck on it and in the belt. And die. If autumn is warm for a long time, the belt is replaced by a fresh one in 3-4 weeks, as well as in spring they are removed in time and replaced by a new one. Old belts must be burnt.
After treatment of the trunk and scaffold branches it is necessary to treat the crown of a fruit-tree. The treatment is performed by spraying with 2 - 3% copper sulfate solution or 3% Bordeaux liquid. Stronger preparations DNOC (1%) and nitrofen (3%) and others can be used.
If pesticides are not used in the orchard, they can be replaced with mineral fertilizer solutions: urea (5%), ammonium nitrate (7%), ammonium sulfate (15%). For spraying it is possible to use 30B preparation, developed on the basis of oil.
Treatment of soil
The last stage of autumn garden protection against pests and simultaneously diseases is the treatment of bedding circles.
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If the garden is plowed, spraying in bedding circles or solid solution of urea (500 g/10 l water) or copper vitriol (7 % solution) is conducted. Spraying with biopreparation oxyzine is effective.
If the soil in bed circles is kept in a state of steam. Then, at the end of all work, the soil is digged up so as not to damage the roots. The shovel is placed along the roots and the digging is deepened from the trunk to the periphery of the crown from 5 to 15 cm depth. Reworked soil is treated with a 7-10% solution of copper sulfate, the drug 30B, other drugs. By the way, 30B is a good adhesive agent and can be added to whitening solutions. It is kept for 3-4 days, finely incorporated with a rake, and mulched with fine mulch with a layer of 5-10 cm. The pests left alive after the soil treatment will begin to occupy the mulch layer and will die by spring. In the spring, mulch is cultivated and recultivated.
Protection against rodents
More trouble to gardeners are caused by hares and mice. Damaging the bark of young seedlings, they cause the death of young trees.
The main control measures are tying with conifers (spruce, juniper), ruberoid. Installation of fences made of Rabitz chain-link mesh. The main thing when installing fences and strapping is to fix the bottom part in the soil of the root circle. Around it, you can place poison baits for mice. For small rodents, snow around the trunk should be trampled in winter after snowfalls.
When whitewashing trees in autumn, 1-2 spoons of carbolic acid can be added to the whitewash composition. Mice and hares will not approach such trees.
Implementation of the suggested measures in preparation of fruit crops for winter will allow for 60-70% destruction of pests and preservation of the garden.
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