Chubushnik - King Of Unpretentious Shrubs

Although the chubushnik has no botanical relation to true jasmines, for all inhabitants of climates with harsh winters it is the one associated with jasmines. It is the real king among garden shrubs, widely spread in our gardens. This status he "earned" both unpretentiousness, and longevity, and the beauty of flowering. Chubushniki - one of the easiest to grow beautifully flowering shrubs. There is no equal to them in landscape, delicate and romantic beauty spectacle in the summer garden. Of course, the garden jasmine has competition, but this does not prevent it from remaining an inimitable favorite.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik (Philadelphus). © nwwildflowers

Content:

  • Chubushnik - garden "false" jasmine
  • Chubushnik species
  • Chubushnik varieties
  • Use of chubushniks  in design and best partners
  • Conditions, necessary for chubushniks
  • Planning and care of chubushniks
  • Wintering of chubushniks
  • Pest and disease control
  • Reproduction of chubushnik

Chubushnik - garden "false" jasmine

This beautiful landscape shrub has rightly won the title of a traditional, classic, widespread and reliable plant. The fact that chubushniki are found in almost every garden (and on every corner -in urban landscaping), does not at all reduce the confusion with its name. All of us call them simply "jasmine", and some nurseries and garden centers even sell seedlings under this very name.

The only way to understand that it is not a real jasmine at all, but a common garden, is to study their botanical name. Unlike true jasmines - representatives of the genus Jasminum - belonging to the Olive family, the chubushniki belong to the genus Philadelphus of a completely different family, the Hortenseae. And when buying garden shrubs you should always pay attention to the markings, check exactly the Latin name.

"Jasmine" in chubushnik is not even a folk nickname, but a misleading one. It is much more correct to use the name "garden jasmine", which immediately makes it clear that the shrub has nothing to do with true indoor and greenhouse jasmines. The name "philadelphus" the chubushnik received in honor of the Egyptian king Ptolemy Philadelphus for his fascination with natural history. But the Russian-speaking "chubushnik" was given to the shrub because its shoots with a cavity inside were used in ancient times to create mouthpieces and chubules of smoking pipes.

Chubushniki, unlike true jasmines, are shrubs and not vines at all. In the wild they are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, the majority of species came into ornamental culture from North America and Western Europe.

Without exception, chubushniki are deciduous shrubs with numerous, rather thin and flexible shoots with gray, only with age cracking bark, forming not very dense, but attractive and graceful bushes. Chubushniks range in height from a little over 1 m to more than 2.5 m, and in regions with harsh winters a height of 3-4 m, typical of some North American species, is extremely rare.

The leaves of chubushniks are simple, but due to the rather light tone of green they appear to be joyful, they stand out against other shrubs. Lanceolate or broadly ovate, they reach 2-7 cm in length.

This shrub blooms on lateral short twigs. Chubushnik always has flowers in small inflorescences of up to 9 pieces each, depending on species and cultivar - more or less loose. Simple, semi-maximum or plump, with a cup-shaped or cup-shaped corolla and four or five concave petals, up to 1 cm in diameter, they have all possible variations of white and cream colors.

The blooming of the chuburn is one of the most delicate and romantic thanks not only to the numerous inflorescences, but also to the fine aroma, which is very similar to the smell of real jasmines (although it is much less sweet, persistent and rich, and can be felt during the day, not only at night). It is not characteristic of all the chubushniks: there are species with a weak, almost imperceptible aroma and varieties completely devoid of smell.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik (Philadelphus). © Willi Grund

The period of blooming of chuburns generally lasts about 2 months, from June to July, but you can only achieve such a spectacle by planting different species and varieties: each chuburn bush will bloom for three weeks at best, but more often will complete the snow-white parade in two.

After flowering, multifaceted bolls of fruit are set.

Species of chubushniks

About two dozen species of chubushniks are used as ornamental plants. Of these, the most popular are:

Chubushnik coronarius (Philadelphus coronarius). Today, this species also includes a number of plants previously considered independently - Pale hibushberry, or Philadelphus common (Philadelphus pallidus) and Caucasian hibushberry (Philadelphus caucasicus). One of the most widespread species, forming tall, powerful bushes of straight, graceful, thin shoots, retaining a fairly wide crown at any age.

Branches are limited to a height of 3 m. Leaves up to 8 cm long, bright green, lanceolate-oval, with a pale underside and sparse denticles along the edge. Brushes of 6-7 flowers on the ends of side branches look like shields; they appear the earliest of all the chubushniks. The creamy-white color of the flowers at a diameter of up to 3 cm makes them even more delicate, and the amazing texture as if sparkling in the sun.

The fragrance of this chubby plant is as similar as possible to that of jasmine and literally envelops the whole space around. In addition to the basic plant, there are large-flowered, golden, silver-edged, low and willow-leaved forms.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnika coronarius (Philadelphus coronarius). © neusdelalamo

Huburn Grey (Philadelphus incanus) is a very sprawling and tall species in which both the crown and inflorescences appear massive. The plant is 3 to 5 meters tall and is memorable for its graying underside of the leaves and buds, already from afar this chubushnik seems unusual. The large leaves with bright coloring are wide enough, oval with an elongated tip. The inflorescences are massive, 8 flowers in diameter up to 2.5 cm, they are original thanks to the bent shape of the brush.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnika gray (Philadelphus incanus). © Stephin11

Small-leaved Thistle (Philadelphus microphyllus) is one of the most spectacular low species, whose thin shoots gracefully bow in arcs, forming a bifurcate and airy bush of about 1 m high. It gets its name from its fine foliage that makes the crown especially delicate.

The fragrance of the fine-leaved hibiscus is unusual, resembling not jasmine but strawberry and pineapple. Flowering of this species usually starts in the first half of June. The maximum height of the bush is about 1.5 m.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Small-leaved Huebush (Philadelphus microphyllus). Fine-leaved Elderberry (Philadelphus tenuifolius) is also a very early summer bloomer and one of the first shrubs to enjoy blossoming in the garden. But this shrub is much taller, with a minimum height of 2 m and the only one with such a strict oval or round natural crown. Leaves are large, in the shade - thin and almost transparent, in the light quite dense. Flowers in diameter reach 3 cm, collected in brushes. It is remembered and very strong aroma of flowers.
Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik thin-leaved (Philadelphus tenuifolius).

Chubushnika pubescens (Philadelphus pubescens), today this species was also included previously considered separately Chubushnika broadleaf (Philadelphus latifolius) - the latest flowering species of hickory, with the first flowers blooming in July, and the last often in August.

This plant differs from its fellows by the pubescent lower side of the leaf plates, but it is worth paying attention to the brightest stamens and anthers, which unlike other chubushniki are colored in dazzling yellow-orange, brightly shining against the background of the petals. The fragrance is light, the bushes are up to 2 m tall.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik fluffy (Philadelphus pubescens). © Andrea Moro

Philadelphus gordonianus (Philadelphus gordonianus) is a large North American species up to 4 m tall, which has leaves that are characterized by pubescence from below and a more intense green color that looks blindingly bright on quality soil. The shrub blooms last nearly three weeks and the inflorescences are massive, nine-flowered, but the fragrance is very faint and the color is snow-white.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Philadelphus gordonianus (Philadelphus gordonianus). © Forestventure

Chubushnikus grandiflorus (Philadelphus grandiflorus) is a charming species native to North America, which at up to 3 m tall and fairly sprawling crowns still looks neat and compact. Leaves up to 12 cm long have a wedge-shaped base, sparse denticles and a dark, deep green rather than light color. The leaves are matte, making the flowers appear enormous and glistening.

Even the humblest cultivars have flowers at least 5 cm in diameter, clustered in clusters of up to 5, pure white. This borage is completely devoid of odor. It is considered more light- and heat-loving.

Lemoine's Chubby (Philadelphus lemoinei) is a hybrid plant which is obtained by crossing the fine-leaved and common chuburn. It is a dense, lush shrub up to 3 m high with more sprawling branches and small leaves (not more than 4 cm in length). The rich color of the greenery perfectly emphasizes the beauty of large, up to 4 cm in diameter white and very fragrant flowers. There are many forms with larger flowers but small leaves and, vice versa - with large leaves and small flowers.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Philadelphus lemoinei

Philadelphus non-scented (Philadelphus inodorus) is a rather tall late flowering bush that forms a spreading and tall bush whose crown diameter almost always exceeds 3 m, while the height may not reach such figures. The cracking brown bark of the beautifully curving shoots combines with the delicate, bright foliage and very large flowers, odorless but very elegant in structure. The species usually blooms in July.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik unscented (Philadelphus inodorus). © Andrea Moro

Chubushnika schrenkii (Philadelphus schrenkii) is a protected species of chubushnik with a height from 2 to 3 m with unusual hairy shoots, ovate leaves and aromatic, up to 4 cm in diameter white flowers in large brushlets. Capable of blooming for 3.5 weeks.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnika schrenkii (Philadelphus schrenkii). © nature

The correct selection of species makes it possible to stretch the blooming of chubushniks for a much longer period, to arrange a real relay race. The crowned hickory always blooms first, followed by the small-leaved and thin-leaved hickory. The last to "join" the parade are the grey-haired and the fluffy ones, which usually start blooming only in July.

Sorts of hickory

Most often hickory plants on sale today are not species, but variety plants. Hybrids and varieties of common or cornelian hickory dominate the market. They have a striking variety both in abundance of flowering, and in the size of flowers, and even in their color. Not to mention the size and shape of the bushes themselves. The best varieties with today's fashionable snow-white color of flowers belong to:

  • "Avalanche" - a hybrid variety up to 1.5 m in height with an especially graceful form of shoots, lighter small leaves and flowers that can reach 3 cm in diameter. The color of the petals is not usual but cold dazzling white, the fragrance is exquisite. Flowering lasts longer than 3 weeks.
  • "Schneesturm" is a weeping variety up to 3 m high with drooping shoots and a rather narrow, delicate crown. The leaves are small but dark. The flowers are up to 5 cm in diameter, densely macerated and dazzling white. The variety blossoms only at the end of June.
  • "Mont Blanc" (Mont Blanc) is a specimen-white variety with macerated flowers, which blossom not only at the top, but along the whole length of the last year shoots, almost hiding the leaves under a "snowy" cap of blossoming. The shrub is not tall, up to 2 m, graceful, seems massive.
  • "Arctic" is one of the most beautiful varieties with simple bell-shaped flowers. Fragrant and bright, it blooms up to 3 weeks and is famous for its drooping thin shoots, which seem to bend under the weight of snow-white bells.
  • "Junnat" - a variety about 1 m high with star-shaped, delicate, snow-white flowers with a diameter of 4 to 5 cm, with a unique strawberry flavor. This variety blooms for about a month, and under the scattering of flowers the dense bright-leaved bush seems like a real vision.
  • "White Bouquet" or "Bouquet Blanche" is a super perfumed variety, never exceeding 1 m in height. The flowers are thickly floral, with broad lower petals and very beautiful five-flowered inflorescences.
  • "Komsomolets" is an early-blooming, very old variety with dark foliage and snow-white, macroflowers with elongated, as if curling petals. It is the only sort incapable of self-cleaning (ugly dry petals stay on the branches for a very long time).
  • "Alabaster" is an upright growing classical sort with a semi-transparent crown and large fragrant semi-major flowers, the dazzling white color of which seems irresistible thanks to the structure of inflorescences: bushes of 7-9 flowers gathered in plumes till half a meter long.
  • "Erectus" is a variety with simple snow-white flowers, which seem to shine against the background of very dark leaves. Very aromatic with a height of 1.5 m.
  • Snow Avalanche is a domestic early flowering variety with elegant shoots up to 1.5 m high with a prominent arc-shaped pattern. Flowers are semi-major, almost snow-white, with an earthy flavor.
  • "Snowstorm" is a beautiful variety that has no leaves under its snow-white, snowflake-like flowers. At the height it reaches 2 m.
  • "Kazbek" - a medium bush with a dense pyramidal crown and very dense floral nearomatous flowers in dense inflorescences. Blossoms for about 1 month.
  • Late flowering variety "Piramidal" with very strong, thickened and straight shoots, creating a tall and slender bush. The large pinkish-white flowers are gathered by 9 on the ends of branches.
Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik 'Schneesturm' (Philadelphus 'Schneesturm')
Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik 'Mont Blanc' (Philadelphus 'Mont Blanc').
Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Hickory 'White Bouquet' or 'Bouquet Blanche' (Philadelphus 'Bouquet Blanche')

Old and new cultivars are among the best bicolored hickory:

  • Bicolore is one of the oldest bicolored cultivars, with the classic white color combined with a pink heart and golden stamens. The flowering is massive, the bushes are graceful, during the flowering period as if wrapped in white-pink lace. The plant has very large flowers, up to 5 cm in diameter.
  • "Sybille" - a variety of common hickory, ranked as a low, with a crown of only 1 m, but with a spectacular purple spot at the base of the petals and bright golden stamens.
  • Beauclerk is a bicolor variety of hickory with especially large, up to 75 cm flowers, also combining pink and white colors, but in a more watercolor version. Another advantage of the variety is the spreading, wide bush shape, which seems to be lush and dense.
Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik variety "Sybilla"
Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik variety "Bicolor"
Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik variety "Bocklerk"

The original form of flowers or inflorescences are memorable varieties:

  • "Flight of the Moths" is a variety with an unusual form of flowers, semi-maxillary, asymmetrical, with a warm cream color shade. The bush is tall and powerful, up to 3 m high.
  • "Pompom" is a variety with very small but dense, dense and short-flowered flowers, which from afar really look like original pompoms. In height is limited to 1.5 m.

The most popular of the varietal chubushniks are medium-growing, 1 to 2 meters high and versatile in use. Favorites today are considered:

  • "Enchantment" - one of the best varieties, which has snow-white dense-blossom flowers up to 6 cm in diameter gathered in very dense inflorescences. It blooms two weeks after the usual hibiscus, with an almost complete lack of scent. Massive inflorescences look impressive thanks to the unusual silhouette of the plant: its lower part gradually becomes bare, it creates unusual architectural accents, as if it hovers over compositions.
  • "Virginal" (Virginal) is one of the oldest varieties of hibiscus, a mahrant variety of common hibiscus whose inflorescences can reach more than 10 cm in length and are adorned with tightly arranged, mahrant and very large cream-colored flowers. Flowers can reach 5 cm in diameter, and the bush is particularly lush and massive (at a height of up to 2 m it can reach three in width).
  • "Elbrus" is one of the most lushly flowering varieties, which at the peak of June flowering looks like a snowy peak. The flowers are mahogany, light creamy, gathered in massive tassels. The coloring seems more dazzling due to the darker coloring of the leaves.
Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik variety "Virginal"

For hedges and planting near houses use more powerful tall varieties of chubushniks:

  • "Air Descent" - a large, up to 3 m in height variety, considered classical for hedges, but attractive and in solo party. Inflorescences openwork, loose, with semi-flowered bell-shaped flowers.
  • "Norma" - a shrub of more than three meters in height, which on one shoot simultaneously blossom large simple, semi-flowered and macerate flowers. Brushes are cone-shaped, up to half a meter long.
  • "Pyramidal" is one of the most spectacular late flowering varieties with fan-shaped diverging shoots that give the whole plant an original geometric shape. Flowers up to 5 cm in diameter, smell faint but are large, semi-maxillary, gathered in tassels at the top of the shoots (sometimes covering up to half a meter or 80 cm from the top of the shoot). Effective in high hedges.
  • "Argentina" is a shrub, blooming in July, always more than 3 m high. It is spectacular, gives impression of being "classical" and lush.

Petal varieties of chubushniks are also gaining popularity today:

  • "Innocente" - a medium-grown variety, in which flowers are not gathered in inflorescences, but open up one by one. It is very aromatic and snow-white, but the main "zest" is the presence of cream spots on its leaves.
  • "Bowles Variety" - a variety with "standard" flowering, but very beautiful variegated leaves, decorated with irregular wide border of cream-white color. The following cultivars are now acknowledged to be the most fashionable:
    • "Manteau d'Hermine" is a beautiful variety with a maximum height of 1 m and a very elegant semi-major flowers with a blossom period longer than a month and a half.
    • Dame Blanche is a sprawling shrub that will not exceed 1m in height and twice its diameter. The leaves are dark and small, the flowers - semi-major, very fragrant, up to 4 cm in diameter. Very elegant plant.
    • "Moonlight" is a low-growing variety of Russian selection, only up to 70 cm, which stands out by its red tint of bark and small leaves giving special delicacy to the shrub.
    • "Dwarf" - a non-flowering shrub up to 30 cm high, growing wide (diameter can be 2.5 times the height), with a very dense green, cushion-shaped texture. This shrub does not flower, but is excellent for regular design and borders.
    Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
    Chubushnik variety "Dame Blanche" (Dame Blanche). © Katarina
    Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
    Chubushnik variety "Mounded Mantle" or "Manteau d'Hermine"

    The use of chubushniks  in design and best partners

    In garden design chubushniks are used:

    • as one of the main landscape and romantic shrubs;
    • as the main summer-flowering shrub;
    • as a soloist in the background of low-growing compositions and lawns;
    • as a background plant;
    • as a visual center of flowering compositions;
    • in mix-borders;
    • in classic flower gardens with height play;
    • in front gardens and parterre plantings;
    • in decoration of rockeries, alpine rocks, ponds and water objects (low-growing varieties);
    •  in regular style (non-flowering varieties "Dwarf" and "Midget" look like green buttons and sheared spheres);
    • for creating hedges (both mono-species and complex, landscape and strict);
    • to decorate resting places and terraces, pergolas as aromatic and picturesque accent;
    • to mask unsightly areas and communications;
    • to create voluminous "wild" compositions;
    • in ensembles with continuous flowering relay.

    Best partners for chubushniks: all flowering shrubs from spirea and veigela to skimpy, ornamental apple, lilac and hydrangea, tree species with unusual crown and decorative foliage (maple, dogwood, hazel). In flower gardens and squares it combines perfectly with ornamental deciduous and beautifully blooming perennials and annuals.

    Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
    Chubushnik purpurascens (Philadelphus purpurascens). © amateurplantsman

    Conditions necessary for hibiscus

    Tough and unpretentious, garden jasmine hibiscus plants can take root in almost any conditions. But only if we are talking about the minimum required parameters of soil and light, suitable for growing "standard" plants. In extreme conditions, in too wet, waterlogged, stony areas, extremely poor and untreated soil, in extreme acidity or calcareousness, the hibiscus will not grow.

    All species and varieties of hibiscus without exception flower better when the plant is placed on sunny sites or at least in bright places. Semi-shade or shade is acceptable for chubushniks, but they develop less compactly, the shoots stretch, the bushes become deformed (while remaining attractive). But if the form of growth suffers only slightly, but flowering is the first "victim" of shading.

    The more shade planted chubushniki, the worse they will bloom. But even in the penumbra, many modern varieties will still reveal their beauty. And the weakening of flowering does not always mean that the shrub will become unsightly and will not decorate a secluded corner. Sometimes the decorative task is more important than full abundant flowering.

    Soil for the hickory is quite simple to pick up. A high level of groundwater, damp, waterlogged, extreme squalor - these are all types of soil, with which the chubushnik will not put up with. The more beautiful the shrub blooms, the more fertile the soil grows. Feels great in any loose and high-quality garden soil.

    Planning and peculiarities of care for chubushniks

    Transplanting garden jasmine seedlings will not cause difficulties even to novice gardeners. Chubushnik feels great when planting in individual holes on a standard technique.

    The distance at planting for this shrub should be from 50 cm to 1.5 m when planting in groups (and depending on the height of bushes) and about 50 cm when creating hedges.

    Planning pits are dug to a standard size - depth and diameter of about 50-60 cm. At the bottom it is desirable to lay a layer of drainage (at least of sand and gravel) of height about 15 cm. The soil taken out of the planting pits is mixed, adding compost or humus and sand, correcting the soil characteristics if necessary.

    The seedling is installed so that the root neck remained at the same level or was deepened by 1-1.5 cm (deepening more than 3 cm will put chubushnik at risk of death from rot). After filling the hole with substrate, carry out quality deep watering.

    Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
    Chubushnik 'Variegatus' (Philadelphus 'Variegatus'). © Alan

    This shrub is justly considered one of the easiest to grow. If the conditions are right and the weather is not a surprise, it does not really need any care. The whole care of the hickory comes down to a few procedures:

    • application of organic fertilizers in early spring in the form of mulch or in the soil, starting from the second year after planting;
    • application of full mineral fertilizers annually in early spring or before flowering and potassium-phosphorous fertilizers after flowering, starting only from the third year of growth (40-50 g fertilizers per 1 bucket of water per 1 plant is enough);
    • supportive watering during droughts with deep soil soaking (one abundant watering - 1-2 buckets per bush - in June or July is enough)
    • loosening the soil in the root circle or creating and maintaining a layer of mulch (even peat or soil is suitable for hibiscus);
    • removal of weeds (when mulching the soil to perform weeding is not necessary);
    • sanitary pruning in the spring - removal of damaged, sick, dry or shoots and frosted part of healthy branches;
    • forming pruning, which is carried out only if it is necessary to obtain a symmetrical, dense bushes (in spring, before the growth of buds strong shoots are slightly shortened, and the weak cut to half height);
    • rejuvenating pruning on overgrown or heavily bared bushes (takes three to four years: in the first year in early spring on bushes leave only 3-4 shoots, shortening them to 40 cm and removing the rest, and from the second year begin shaping, leaving on each shoot no more than 2 - 3 of the strongest lateral shoots).

    Hibernation of chubushniks

    Chubushnik is one of those beautiful flowering shrubs, which feel perfectly well in the conditions of the average strip and without any protection for winter. However, everything is not so simple in the ability to endure winters with the most severe frosts in this shrub.

    Reputation of shrubs with sufficient winter hardiness often leads to the fact that the hickory is bought without checking, without even specifying what conditions it needs and how enduring a particular variety really is. And such checking should always be done by checking where the particular shrub was grown and how it wintered.

    There is a huge number of both variety and species seedlings, which are brought from Europe, on the seedling market along with varieties adapted to a particular area. And such planting material has very different indexes of frost-resistance. There are even varieties of "our" chubushniki among separate varieties, which are wintering perfectly well at 25 degrees below zero, and plants capable of surviving only the maximum 15 degrees below zero. And when you buy a variety without checking, no one guarantees that it will survive the winter. Even if you make sure when buying that your hibiscus can grow in the middle zone and is adapted to your climate, be prepared that in snowless, unstable or extremely severe winters the bushes can freeze to the snow level. But there is no need to be afraid of frosty shoots: chubushniki perfectly recover and flower without consequences, sometimes only a little later.

    Fragile bushes should be tied up for the winter to prevent breaking of shoots under the weight of snow. Mulching of bedding area in late autumn is good for the shrub, as well as pouring snow. © Atena Wolff

Pest and disease control

Chubby trees are considered resistant garden plants. Diseases on them practically do not occur. But specific pests can cause a lot of trouble on weakened plants. Spider mites, green leaf weevils and bean aphids can be found on chubushniks. It is better to fight the problems first with biological preparations (herbs, infusions, decoctions), and in the absence of results - to apply systemic fungicides.

Reproduction of chubushnik

Garden jasmine - one of the easiest to grow, but not to reproduce plants among shrubs with beautiful flowering. It is possible to get new specimens from seeds and vegetatively, but success will require patience and rearing for several years on seedbeds. And the process itself is far from standard.

Seeds of hickory keep germination for only 1 year. Sowing can be carried out in autumn, winter in the soil or in spring in greenhouses and greenhouses. Prior to sowing the seeds are stored in the cool. Options for growing:

  1. Sowing in autumn is carried out after light frost of the soil on seedling beds, covering the top with non-woven material and mulch of dry leaves.
  2. The strategy of sowing in winter on a warm day with a temperature not below 10 degrees of frost is considered optimal. Sowing is carried out on specially prepared beds, in the snow, to a depth of about 25-30 cm, protecting the crops with lapniks, straw or brushwood on top. In spring cover is carefully removed, sprouts are shaded.
  3. Spring sowing is carried out only in greenhouses, hothouses or containers under film and glass in room conditions. Sowing is carried out after preliminary soaking of seeds. Sow chubushnikas superficially, covering the seeds with humus or sifted substrate. Shade, stable humidity and room temperatures are required for germination. Immediately after the emergence of seedlings of hibiscus plants are sprayed with a weak solution of manganese. Sprouts dive after the appearance of a true leaf. In the same year (early summer or fall) need to transfer young plants in the open soil in seedbeds with a distance of about 30-40 cm between the bushes. Only in the second or third year can chubushniks be planted in a permanent place.

Cuttings of chubushniks provide two possible methods and are better in small-leaved, but not in large-leaved chubushniks:

From the single leafed shoots. This method requires cutting chubushnik shoots in autumn, after leaffall, and rooting - only in early spring. Cut cuttings are 10 to 15 cm long from strong, woody shoots. After cutting, they are either pinned in the open ground or in a container with wet sand and kept at about 0 degrees indoors until spring.

It is best to root in open soil, on beds or in greenhouses (greenhouses), but cuttings can also be planted in large containers (transplanting to ridges after rooting will be necessary). The distance in the rows between the cuttings of hickory should be about 40 cm, but the rows are made short, 10-15 cm.

Saved cuttings are planted in a sandy loam substrate, obliquely, in previously made holes, dropping to the upper pair of buds, which should be at the same level with the soil. Around the cuttings the soil is slightly compacted. Rooting with the condition of maintaining light moisture of the soil will take up to 5 weeks. A full root system is formed only by the end of summer.

Slowly growing cuttings of hibiscus require regular weeding, watering and loosening the soil, ducking the base for more tillering. Plants grow up with mulching for the winter until the next year, spend spring cutting "on the stump", and planted in a permanent place only in the autumn of the second year after the formation of numerous side branches.

Chubushnik - king of unpretentious shrubs
Chubushnik (Philadelphus). © Alan

Green cuttings of hickory are cut in June, choosing shoots with short internodes and avoiding coppiced, strongly growing, elongated branches. Cut cuttings with two pairs of leaves (one internodes), cutting all the leaves in half at once. The upper cut should be made directly above the node, the lower one - a few centimeters below and necessarily obliquely.

You can use the whole short side branches of chubby, breaking them off with a heel. Rooting green cuttings is better not on the ridge, but in greenhouses or greenhouses, containers.

The cuttings are planted in a nutritious substrate, the top covered with sand, at a distance of 5-6 cm between plants and with a depth of immersion no more than 1 cm (the lower pair of leaves should remain above the surface, not at the same level with the soil). It is necessary to make small holes in advance for cuttings, and not to immerse them in the "solid" soil. After installing the cuttings, the soil is abundantly sprayed, provide good diffused lighting, stable temperature and humidity.

When rooting in the containers necessarily set the cap. Rooted cuttings, starting to grow, should be gradually accustomed to fresh air, within a week, only slightly opening the hood or greenhouse before removing it permanently. By fall, chubushniki transferred to open soil, within two years, finish growing in separate beds, and then transferred to a permanent place. Up to 40 branches can be simultaneously rooted from one bush, and it is better to take them radially, in a circle. For this method of propagation, pruning to stumps on the spring shoots is usually carried out specially a year before this procedure to stimulate formation of more powerful shoots. The soil is turned over, leveled, a small groove is made in it and the shoots are fixed in it so that the first lower bud was in the ground. Chubushnik shoots under the buds are fastened with pins, covered with soil from above.

When new shoots reach a height of 15 cm they are dipped, repeating the process of sprinkling the soil to form a mound of height about 20 cm exactly one week after the first dip. Branching off is carried out in mid-autumn (October) by simply cutting off the shoots from the mother bush.

If the young branches released in summer have also taken root, then each branch can be divided into parts with one shoot and independent roots. The offshoots should not be planted immediately in a permanent place: they, as well as the cuttings received by chubushniks, two years finish growing on separate beds, and only then transfer to the "legal" place.

The separation of bushes is carried out on any chubushniks actively producing root shoots. Young bushes are simply carefully dug away from the plant, planting them immediately in a permanent place. Separation can also be done in early spring and fall.

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