Winter planting of garlic is a responsible event, it is necessary to choose the right planting material, correctly determine the terms of planting, know the subtleties and rules, nuances and features. Here with such nuances let me begin.
- Bulbs or cloves?
- Zymnion - planting full garlic cloves for winter
- Potting bulbous bulbs
- Some useful tips
Bulbs or cloves?
Few people know (and maybe many), but I personally learned about it only 15 years ago, that garlic as a crop has two different forms: one is called as not shooter, the second - shooter, which in our Tambov region has always been called simply "zimnyak". What is arrowroot? At its simplest, it is an ordinary flower stalk. Arrow forms only winter garlic, the one that we sow in autumn.
With winter garlic, as we have understood, giving arrows at the end of a burning summer on the peduncle begin to mature bulbs, these are air bulbs, and in each inflorescence can number a hundred pieces or even more.
Use these very bulbs is also acceptable for planting in the fall, but next season you will not get a full head of garlic cloves. From the bulb will grow only a fairly small, weighing only 4-7 grams bulb, which we call a monotooth and are sold very lucratively in the market for planting in the fall. From monotooths for the next summer and get a full head of garlic. By the way, sometimes quite large and with cloves in it.
All is well, but there are exceptions: bulbs also come in different sizes, and when you sow very small, and next season the bulbs will not be very large. A quality harvest of solid-sized garlic bulbs, packed with cloves and ready for long-term storage, you can get only in another season, that is, in the third year. Due to the rather slow development of garlic, when multiplying it this way, bulb sowing is practiced on home plots only sometimes as an experiment or, more often, to preserve all the cultural features of a particular garlic variety.
Zymnik - planting full garlic cloves for winter
Planning full garlic cloves for winter, its popularity, in no comparison with bulb sowing is not put. By the way, what is a cog? A cog is, in essence, a daughter bulb that has a well-developed, active, lively embryonic bud. And if there are many such garlic cloves (do not think that there are at least three, there may be one, and the maximum - as many as seven pieces), which are clustered on a common stalk and carefully wrapped with covering scales, it is already a bulb, and a complex one.
From large - large
It is believed that the bigger (larger) the planting material itself, the greater the yield will be. That is, if we plant a large garlic clove in the soil, then in the spring we just have to get a large bulb with the maximum number of large cloves. If you plant a small cog, the bulb garlic will be medium-sized, at best with small or just one cog inside.
Newcomers who have not grown garlic before usually take the largest cloves for food or storage, while the smaller ones are planted on the plot. As a result, they have smaller and smaller harvests every year, although they remove the arrows in time (an important procedure, by the way: the arrows draw a lot of food to themselves), but this method does not help. If you do not want to reduce your harvests garlic to values close to zero, then for planting try to divide large cloves evenly - half for food and half for harvest, and, of course, for planting use and single cloves.
Once every two or three years I would advise on a separate small bed to revive garlic, that is, grow it from bulbs, this will not harm, only benefit.
When to plant garlic for the winter?
To the timing, it is important, but largely depends on climatic conditions. If we talk about the center of Russia, the optimal period for this is, of course, the very beginning of October. If we are talking about the south, it is better to plant garlic not earlier than the end of October or, even better - not earlier than the beginning of November, to be absolutely reinsured. And if the conditions are Siberian, then hurry up.
As we can see, the terms are more than vague, but experienced gardeners who have lived in the same area for a long time already have notes with a couple of secret signs in their stock of knowledge. For example, some seriously think that garlic must be planted before the Intercession, and others - the day after this great holiday.
I know that, for example, in the conditions of Tomsk oblast annually planting winter garlic begin with 22-23 September and (if it is hot), then delay until October 7. My acquaintances from Ufa always take a vacation and plant garlic on its very first day, starting on October 8. Of course, there are thermometers to help us, and we should listen to intuition: the older a person is, the better it is developed. My grandfather in Kazan plants garlic in spite of the weather outside the window - stubbornly - in the first decade of October and has not deviated from this tradition for the last twenty years.
So, one general rule for planting garlic, regardless of calendar dates, says: cloves must be in the ground a month and a half (maximum - 50 days) before the start of a real frost, when soil temperatures fall below nine degrees. This is the optimal time for garlic to form a decent bundle of roots (sometimes even 15 cm, but usually about ten).
The place for planting garlic
The right place is very important and affects the final result, so you can not neglect this point. Remember that garlic is a light loving crop, so choose the most open and well lit place on the plot. Try to choose a place so that even during the day the short shade does not cover this culture. As for the predecessors, good are considered to be siderats, pumpkins (and in general all cucumbers), tomatoes, any cabbage (especially early), legumes and leafy greens, but bad predecessors for garlic are onions, the same garlic, carrots, cucumbers and potatoes.
Selecting a site and deciding on the predecessors, find out what kind of soil on this site, do not forget that like all bulbs, garlic likes loose soil, air- and water permeable, nutritious and necessarily with a neutral pH, all this should be taken care of in advance, at least a month.
Try not to plant garlic in the fall in areas waterlogged, those where meltwater or rainwater accumulates for a long time, where the soil is dense, clay type, and of course, the soil is acidic, it is usually any soil, which includes a lot of peat. You can plant garlic on sandstones, but it will be of little use: this substrate is poor and requires very frequent watering, so the bulbs are likely to be very small.
Preparing the soil
As we know, there are different plots, and it is good when the given plot is raised and leveled and the ground is as fluffy; it is quite different when the plot is low and the ground dries out slowly. What to do? In this case the best option is to build high beds (twenty centimeters - just right). Width of seedbeds can be any, but usually no one does more than a meter wide, so it is more convenient to weed.
Course, high seedbeds have their disadvantages, do not forget about them. The most important: the soil on such beds dries up twice as quickly as on a conventional bed, but there are also advantages: in case of a downpour or excessive watering the water comes off faster, and such beds warm up in the spring twice as quickly as flat soil. The main thing is that they are fenced and do not spill over the plot.
Please also read this.
If the soil on your plot is acidic, you can refuse to plant garlic in autumn and do it in spring. Or a month before planting introduce 200 grams of lime per square meter of bed, well (on the full bayonet of a spade) recultivating the soil. Of course, the ideal option is to lime the soil, especially under the garlic precursor, but then you will have to give up both fall planting and spring planting. In autumn you should add 250-300 grams of lime under the digging, plant early cabbage in spring, and the following autumn - winter garlic.
If all is well with the soil, that is, its reaction is neutral, then the beds can make 10-12 kg of humus, a tablespoon of superphosphate and a tablespoon of potassium sulfate under the digging of the bed, for each square meter. The main thing in this case - do not resort to the help of fresh manure, you can use humus, but if in addition to the manure does not have anything, then use the fact that he had been in a pile at least four years, that is well pereprelal.
Additional depending on the type of soil:
If the soil is very heavy, clayey, dense and on it stagnates for a long time both melt and irrigation water, it should be brought to normal as quickly as possible. This should be done at least a month before planting garlic, this work is physically difficult and without the possibility of using machinery, although it all depends on the size of the future bed with garlic. In order to make the soil friable, it is necessary to make a bucket of peat and river sand per square meter of soil under deep digging on a full bayonet of shovel.
If, on the contrary, your plot soil is excessively loose, that is sandy, then it must be compacted by adding clay and humus. Clay before spreading it should be dried very well, and then crushed into very small pieces until it becomes a powder, and only after that it can be added to the soil in combination with sand. Typically, a square meter under the digging you need both of these (that is, sand and clay) in a bucket.
Individuals of peat soils, which are often acidic, in addition to making 250 g of lime per square meter, we advise to add a bucket of sand, always river and clay, prepared by the method described above. All this is applied under the obligatory recultivation of the soil.
Planting of garlic cloves
Let's start with the traditional and most common planting of garlic - planting of cloves. When the bed is ready, leveled, loosened, you should make rows on it, giving 18-20 cm distance from each other. The distance between the cloves of garlic depends on their size: small cloves can be planted, leaving 14-16 cm between them, larger cloves - 19 and even 22 cm, saving soil in this case just makes no sense. Usually, the cloves are embedded in loose soil to a depth of four centimeters, and in heavy soil to a depth of five or six centimeters.
Plotting bulbous bulbs
The same distance of two tens of centimeters between the rows can be quite enough, but ten cm between bulbs if they are quite small, and 15 cm if larger. Put the bulbs of garlic in loose soil to a depth of four centimeters, in denser soil - to five centimeters. Usually about three dozen bulbs per square meter of bed, less often - more, but it is not worth to spend too much with the placement.
Start planting garlic is not worth for the reason that usually in his plantings weeds proliferate quite actively and it becomes difficult to take care of it, besides, there is a trivial competition between them and the bulbs just can not grow large.
A few useful tips
Prepare the soil before planting garlic for 10-15 days, ie, if at the end of September we plan to plant it, it is quite possible in the beginning of the month to start preparing the soil.
Will the processing of garlic cloves before planting? It is rarely carried out, you can soak for an hour or two in a solution of light colored manganese, but it is usually the further agrotechnics that determine the success of cultivation.
In any soil, even the most loose, the maximum depth of burial garlic clove - six centimeters, bulb - five centimeters.
Strongly "stick" cloves garlic should not, they must be carefully "put" in the soil, for which the soil must first be brought to a loose state.
When planting beds after planting it is enough to sprinkle the top layer with oven ash, 200 g per square meter.
Watering of garlic after planting is not necessary, the rains are usually enough, but if it does not fall for a month, you can water once, spending a bucket per square meter.
After the frost, while there is no snow, garlic can be covered with 15-25 cm layer of leaf litter and spread non-woven covering material over it. Or do not use leaves at all, but use only material.
In the north, winter garlic is protected by covering it with straw manure, horse manure, mixing manure and sawdust in equal proportions. You can also cover with humus, a layer of 18-20 cm. The main thing - in the spring as quickly and accurately as possible to remove the cover, so that the soil warmed up more actively and not to damage the seedlings.
A month after the snowfall, you can loosen the soil, trying to dig down 1.5-2 cm, but this is already care, that is, another article.